Psy 11

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eddardofwinter
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Psy 11
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2014-05-01 10:51:32
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  1. Language consists of smaller components, like words, that can be combined to form larger ones, like phrases, to create sentences, which themselves can be components of
    a larger story. This property is known as

    a. hierarchical structure.
    b. relational organization. 
    c. parallel organization.
    d. propositional representation.
    a. hierarchical structure.
  2. Which property below is NOT one of the characteristics that makes human language
    unique?

    A. Hierarchical structure
    B. Governed by rules
    C.all of these make human language unique
    D. Communication
    D. Communication
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Yoda, a central character of the Star Wars
    movies created by George Lucas, has a distinctive way of speaking. His statement, “Afraid you will be,” violates which English language property?

    A. Lexicon
    B. Coding
    C. Discriminability
    D. Rules
    D. Rules
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Evidence that language is a social process that must be learned comes from the fact that when deaf children find themselves in an environment where there are no people
    who speak or use sign language, they are unable to develop any formal language
    skills.

    a. True
    b. False
    b. False
  5. In New Guinea, tribes that had been isolated for centuries were found that

    A. had just a few language systems that were all governed by similar rules.
    B. communicated by hand signals but not verbal language as we know it.
    C. had a large number of sophisticated language systems.
    D. had languages that were more primitive than languages of most non-isolated societies.
    C. had a large number of sophisticated language systems.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. B.F. Skinner, the modern champion of behaviorism, proposed that language is learned through

    A. parsing.
    B. genetic coding.
    C. syntactic framing.
    D. reinforcement.
    D. reinforcement.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Noam Chomsky proposed that

    A. as children learn language, they produce only sentences they have heard before.
    B. humans are genetically programmed to acquire and use language.
    C. language is learned through the mechanism of reinforcement.
    D. the underlying basis of language is different across cultures.
    B. humans are genetically programmed to acquire and use language.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. One of Chomsky's most persuasive arguments for refuting Skinner's theory of language acquisition was his observation that children

    A. show similar language development across cultures.
    B. learn to follow complex language rules, even though they are not aware of doing so.
    C. produce sentences they have never heard.
    D. are rewarded for using correct language.
    C. produce sentences they have never heard.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Ty has finished work on his doctoral dissertation. He studied how most adults
    understand words, specifically the priming effects of categorically related words and submitted a proposal to be included in a psychological conference to present his work to his peers. Presentation at the conference is segregated based on the particular topic in psychology under consideration. It is most
    likely that Ty’s work will be presented in a conference session on 

    A. neuropsychology.
    B. sensation.
    C. psychoacoustics.
    D. psycholinguistics.
    D. psycholinguistics.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Lilo can’t wait for school to start. This year is the first time she gets to take a foreign language class, and she is taking Japanese. Dr. Nabuto is a professor interested in studying how people learn additional languages later in life, and he is including Lilo’s class in his research.  Dr. Nabuto is most likely studying

    A. speech parsing.
    B. speech production.
    C. language comprehension.
    D. language acquisition.
    D. language acquisition.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Ron is an avid reader. He has a large vocabulary because every time he comes across a word he doesn’t know, he looks it up in the dictionary. Ron encounters  “wanderlust” in a novel, reaches for the dictionary, and finds out this word
    means “desire to travel.” The process of looking up unfamiliar words increases Ron’s

    A. parser.
    B. lexicon.
    C. mental set.
    D. syntactical capacity.
    B. lexicon.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. A phoneme refers to

    A. the property of combining words into unique sentences.
    B. a mental grouping of words being heard during “inner audition.”
    C. the first word produced by infants, usually during their second year.
    D. the shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of a word.
    D. the shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of a word.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. The word "bad" has ____ phoneme(s).

    A. four
    B. two
    C. one
    D. three
    D. three
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. "Kitchen tables" consists of ____ morphemes.

    A. three
    B. two
    C. four
    D. five
    A. three
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. An experiment on the phonemic restoration effect would most likely include

    A. an extraneous cough.
    B. a categorical perception task.
    C. two similar-sounding letters (e.g., "T" and "C").
    D. a garden-path sentence.
    A. an extraneous cough.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. In the phonemic restoration effect, participants "fill in" the missing phoneme based on all of the following EXCEPT

    A. a mental "skimming" of the lexicon to find likely words.
    B. the meaning of the words that follow the missing phoneme.
    C. the context produced by the sentence.
    D. the portion of the word that was presented.
    A. a mental "skimming" of the lexicon to find likely words.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. You are conducting a study on how fluency influences the phonemic restoration effect. You study two groups of non-native English speakers, one with a year of English classes and the other with 10 years. All of your stimuli are in English. Who would you expect to show the greatest phonemic restoration effect?

    A. Neither group would show an effect because they are non-native English speakers
    B. The group with 10 years of English instruction
    C. The two groups would show equal phonemic restoration effects
    D. The group with one year of English instruction
    B. The group with 10 years of English instruction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. When we look at a record of the physical
    energy produced by conversational speech, we see that the speech signal 

    A.is continuous.
    B. has breaks between morphemes.
    C. has breaks between words.
    D. has breaks between phonemes.
    A.is continuous.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Pollack and Pickett's experiment on understanding speech found that when participants were presented with individual words taken out of conversations (single words presented alone with no context), they could identify

    A. 50% of the words spoken by others with an accent similar to theirs.
    B. none of the words spoken by others.
    C. 100% of the words spoken by their own voices.
    D. 50% of the words spoken by their own voices.
    D. 50% of the words spoken by their own voices.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The word frequency effect refers to the fact that we respond more

    A. quickly to letters that appear multiple times in a word than just once in a word.
    B. quickly to phonemes that appear multiple times in a word than just once in a word.
    C. slowly to letters appearing in non-words than letters appearing in words.
    D. slowly to low-frequency words than high-frequency words.
    D. slowly to low-frequency words than high-frequency words.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which set of stimuli would be the best selection for having people perform a lexical
    decision task?

    A. Concrete words “window, monkey” and abstract words “doubt, energy”
    B. Correctly spelled words “speech, potato” and misspelled words “speach, potatoe”
    C. Common words “cat, boat” and uncommon words “peon, furtive”
    D. Words “pizza, history” and non-words “pibble, girk”
    D. Words “pizza, history” and non-words “pibble, girk”
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. In the lexical decision task, participants are asked to

    A. identify words that are contained in sentences.
    B.   separate a sentence into individual words.
    C. decide whether a string of letters is a word or a non-word.
    D. decide which meaning of an ambiguous sentence is correct in a specific situation.
    C. decide whether a string of letters is a word or a non-word.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. A researcher had participants read each of
    the sentences below and measured the time it took to read each sentence.

    Trial 1: The lamb ran past the cottage into the pasture.
    Trial 2: The dog ran past the house into the yard.

    The participants’ response times were longer for _____ because of the _____ effect.

    A. trial 2; word superiority
    B. trial 1; word frequency
    C. trial 1; word superiority
    D. trial 2; word frequency
    B. trial 1; word frequency
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. In an eye movement study, Rayner and coworkers had participants read sentences
    that contained either a high- or low-frequency target word. For example, the
    sentence “Sam wore the horrid coat though his ____ girlfriend complained,” contained either the target word “pretty” or “demure.” Results showed the participants’ _____ was shorter for the target word _____.

    A. eye movement; pretty
    B. fixation; demure
    C. fixation; pretty
    D. eye movement; demure
    C. fixation; pretty
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Within the realm of conversational speech,
    context refers to

    A. the mental process of grouping words together that occurs as a person creates speech appropriate for the conversation.
    B. the tendency to respond in a certain manner based on past experience.
    C. the meaning of a conversation.
    D. the rules for combining spoken words into sentences.
    C. the meaning of a conversation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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