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mainstays of therapy for Bipolar disorder
lithium, valproic acid
what is bipolar disorder?
cyclic disorder where there are episodes of mania and depression that persist for months without treatment
How many cycles a year for Rapid cycling BPD?
4 cycles or more a year
types of episodes seen in BPD
- pure manic episode
- major depressive
- mixed episode
- rapid cycling
three categories of BPD
- Bipolar 1
- Bipolar 2
- Rapid Cycling
characteristics of bipolar 1
manic or mixed episodes that are usually depressive
Bipolar 2 characteristics
hypomanic or depressive episodes (no mixing)
does non drug therapy work for BPD?
types of drugs used for BPD
- mood stabilizers
types of mood stabilizing drugs
- anti epileptic drugs
mechanism of action of lithium
- altered distribution of certain ions
- altered synthesis and release of norepinephrine,serotonin and dopamine
- mediates intracellular responses to neurotransmitters
- shown to facilitate regeneration of damaged optic nerds
- can increase total gray matter in regions known to atrophy in BPD
adverse lithium effects
- renal toxicity
What is drug interaction of NSAIDs wit lithium?
can change the release of Li
Types of anti epileptic drugs
- valproic acid
What is lamotrigine used for in BPD?
- indicated for long term maintenance
- can be used alone or in combination
what are anti epileptic drugs used for in BPD?
- control symptoms during manic episodes
- used long term to stabilize mood
what is the hypomania phase
like they are on a high
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