neuro exam 4

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neuro exam 4
2014-05-01 11:32:53

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  1. Input for limbic system comes from
    • Temporal assn cx/Olfact to hippo/amyg
    • Frontal/Parieto-occipital cx to cingulate gyrus
  2. amygdala output to
    basal forebrain/hypoth
  3. hippocampus output to
  4. Papez circuit
    • Hippocampus
    • mammillary bodies via fornix
    • anterior thalamic nucleus via mammillothal trc
    • cingulate cx via cingulum
    • entorhinal cx along parahippo gyrus
    • back to hippo
  5. basal forebrain output to (limbic)
    prefrontal cx & hypoth
  6. Symptoms of Horners
    • Mitotic pupil
    • ptosis (droop)
    • anhidrosis (Xsweat)
  7. basal forebrain to brainstem
    medial forebrain bundle
  8. hypoth to/from brainstem/spinal
    dorsal longitudinal fasciculus
  9. fibers in dorsal long. fasciculus
    descending GVE fibers
  10. largest input, large myelinated
  11. anterior hypoth nuclei
    • paraventricular (magno)
    • supraoptic (magno)
    • suprachiasmatic (circadian)
  12. tuberal nuclei
    • dorso/ventromedial - feeding/sleep-wake
    • arcuate - to pituitary (parvocell)
  13. posterior hypoth nuclei
    • posterior nuc - sleep/wake
    • mamillary nuc - memory fxns
  14. part of hypothal that is continuous with RF and contains medial forebrain bundle
    lateral part
  15. medial/lateral hypoth defined by
    fornix & mammill tract
  16. Anterior hypoth is symp/para?
  17. Posterior hypoth is symp/para?
  18. Parasymp GSE cranial nerves
    • III, VII, IX, X
    • S1-3 (pelvic n.)
  19. Parasymp preganglionic (long/short) and where do they synapse
    Long, terminal ganglia (within organ)
  20. Sympathetic preganglionics are located in ___ and synapse in _____ or ____. They are (long/short)
    lateral horn, paravertebral gang or prevertebral gang, short
  21. Three letters for sympathetic fibers
  22. Sympathetic fibers arise from
    Parasymp fiber arise from
    • Thoracolumbar
    • Craniosacral
  23. Edinger Westphal nucleus located in
    superior midbrain
  24. III GVE ganglion
    ciliary ganglion
  25. preganglionic sympathetic input to eye originates from ____ and synapses on _____ to control ____
    T1/2, superior cervical ganglion, pupillary dilator/smooth muscle upper eyelid
  26. define language
    use of symbols (words) to express ideas
  27. prosody
    musical quality
  28. prosody from what hemisphere
  29. fluency
    output rate
  30. BA for Wernicke's
    22, 39, 40
  31. BA for Broca's
    44, 45
  32. fibers connecting broca's wernicke's
    superior longitudinal fasciculus (arcuate)
  33. dysarthria
    motor deficit
  34. anomia
    difficulty finding words
  35. Motor aphasia
  36. Sensory aphasia
  37. conduction aphasia
    damage to connection between broca's & wernicke's
  38. neologisms
    made up words (sensory)
  39. paraphasias
    sound substitution (sensory)
  40. normal language requires
    • perception (auditory/vision)
    • assocn and processing
    • production (motor)
  41. non dominant side role in language
    prosody, automatic utterances (OUCH)
  42. BA 22
    posterior part superior temp gyrus
  43. BA 39
    angular gyrus (posterior to 40)
  44. BA 40
    supramarginal gyrus
  45. contralateral hemiparesis common with
    motor aphasia
  46. what is impaired with sensory aphasia
  47. damage to right parietal lobe
  48. agnosognosia
    failure to recognize deficit
  49. prosopagnosia
    inability to recognize faces
  50. damage location for prosopagnosia
    inferior temporal lobe
  51. BA 41
    primary auditory cx
  52. BA 42
    auditory assn cx
  53. BA 17
    banks of calcarine sulcus - primary visual cx
  54. BA 18
    above and below 17 -visual assn cx
  55. agnosia
    • cannot recognize meaning of info despite intact sensory system
    • 1 modality
  56. two types of visual agnosia and what they mean
    • Apperceptive - unable make visual elements a unified image
    • Associative - unable to recognize a clear unified object
  57. Hierarchies of sensory systems
    primary sens cx to modality-specific association area to multimodal association area
  58. multimodal assn area for vision
    inferior temporal lobe
  59. multimodal assn area for audition
  60. retinal slip
    object is moving too fast for eyes to keep up - distortion
  61. optokinetic movements
    smooth pursuit + saccades to follow moving target (train)
  62. optokinetic, smooth pursuit, saccades all converge on what pathway
    ascending MLF
  63. how is optokinetic like vestibular nystagmus
    • slow phase + fast phase
    • driven by visual input & continuous velocity
  64. near triad
    convergence + accommodation + pupillary constriction
  65. what drives vergence movements?
    retinal disparity (loss of focus) drives accommodation (III)
  66. Pathway for smooth pursuit
    • Visual assn cx (perceive target)
    • FEF (6/8)
    • vestibulocerebellum (flocculus)
    • vestibular nuc.
    • aMLF to III IV VI
  67. pathway for saccades
    • assn cx
    • FEF
    • superior colliculus
    • PPRF in pons or rostral interstitial nuc (midbr)
    • aMLF
  68. Nucleus for horizontal gaze
    PPRF - pontine paramedian reticular formation
  69. Nucleus for vertical gaze
    rostral interstitial nuc (midbrain)
  70. retinal disparity
    same target on each eye before they are superimposed
  71. anopsia
    deficit in visual field
  72. hemianopsia
    loss of half of the visual field in one or both eyes
  73. bitemporal hemianopsia
    • outer half of vision on both eyes
    • damage to optic chiasm
  74. homohymous hemiopsia
    • loss of same half of vision for both eyes
    • damage to optic tract
  75. quadrantic hemianopsia
    • loss of 1/4 of visual field
    • damage to optic radiation Meyers loop - superior quadrants of same side
  76. nasal hemiretinal
    contralateral through optic chiasm
  77. lateral/temporal hemifield
    ipsilateral projection through optic tract
  78. combo of what visual field create L & R hemifields?
    binocular field + monocular (periferal)
  79. light path
    cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitrious humor, retina, choroid, sclera
  80. optic disk
    blind spot
  81. makes aq. humor and suspends lense
    ciliary body
  82. 4 cell types of retina in order of light transduction
    • superficial pigment epithelium
    • photoreceptor layer
    • bipolar cells
    • ganglion cell layer
  83. macula (eye)
    highest visual activity
  84. fovea
    • center of macula
    • all cones
    • high density receptors
  85. axons in optic tract go to
    • LGN lateral geniculate nucleus (thalamic relay)
    • pretectal nuclei (PLR) rostral midbrain
    • superior colliculus (tectospinal)
    • hypothalamus (suprachiasmatic nucleus)
  86. pathway for PLR
    • optic tract
    • brachium of super colliculus
    • pretectal nuclei
    • oculomotor nucleus
    • ciliary ganglion
    • pupillary sphincter
  87. LGN layers contralateral (nasal hemiretinal) input
    1 4 6
  88. LGN layers for ipsilateral (lateral/temp) input
    2 3 5
  89. parvocellular layers of LGN
    • 3 4 5 6
    • process color and form
  90. magnocellular layers of LGN
    • 1 2
    • process fast movement
  91. BA 19
    • visual assn
    • either side of 18
  92. inferior visual field located
    above calcarine sulcus
  93. superior visual field located
    axons from LGN form
    • below calcarine sulcus
    • Meyer's loop
  94. location of macula input on visual cx
    posterior region of 17
  95. What is melanopsin system
    • found in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells
    • important in 24 schedule and assists PLR
  96. where is fusiform gyrus and what is it implicated in
    • occipiotemporal gyrus (lateral to parahippocampal gyrus)
    • facial recognition
  97. three letters for chemical senses
  98. SVA detect
    • olfaction
    • gustation
    • chemicals in blood
  99. SVA nerves for gustation
    • VII (rostral 2/3)
    • IX (caudal 1/3)
    • X (root)
  100. Main visceral sensory nucleus (SVA)
    Solitary nucleus
  101. location of primary gustatory cx
    inferior postcentral gyrus into insular region
  102. tubular structure in nasal septum, opens into nasal cavity
    Vomeronasal organ
  103. smell perception located in
    (orbitofrontal-basalforebrain-septal region)
  104. Smaller of the two vestibular sacs
  105. macula (vestibular)
    detects linear accelleration
  106. striola
    kinocillium point toward this imaginary line in macula
  107. kinocilium of macula are inserted within
    otolithic membrane
  108. describe accelleration in macula
    • linear accelleration causes hair cells to increase or decrease firing.
    • bend towards stereocilia - decrease
    • bend away from stereocilia - increase
  109. bends inside ampulla
  110. membrane containing hair cells for signal transduction in the ampulla
    crista ampularis
  111. cupula bending toward utricle
    • increase firing same side as head turn
    • fluid moving opposite direction
  112. vestibuloocular reflex pathway
    bilateral via aMLF
  113. vestibulocollic reflex pathway
    • Medial vestibulospinal tract (descending MLF)
    • bilateral to cervical SC
  114. vestibulospinal reflex pathway
    • Lateral vestibulospinal tract from lateral vest nuc.
    • ipsilateral to antigravity mm
  115. primary input to vestibulospinal reflex
  116. tympanic membrane
    • airĀ 
    • ext--middle ear
  117. bones in middle ear
    • malleus
    • incus
    • stapes
  118. oval/vestibular window
    middle--inner ear
  119. describe fluid in inner ear
    perilymph surrounds endolymph
  120. contain perilymph on either side of cochlear duct
    • scala vestibuli
    • scala tympani
  121. describe spiral organ
    • hair cells sit on basilar membrane and are inbedded in tectorial membrane
    • basilar membrane moves and stimulates hair cells which send electrical signal to spiral ganglia
  122. Pathway for auditory info
    spiral ganglia, pontomedullary junction, cochlear nuclei, superior olive via trapezoid body (bilateral), inferior colliculi via lateral lemniscus, medial geniculate nucleus (thalamic relay) via brachium, primary auditory cx (BA 41,42)
  123. failure of neural elements (hair cells)
    • sensorineural deafness
    • Weber test - vibration fork on top of head
  124. failure of mechanical conduction of pressure waves
    • conduction deafness
    • bone conduction better than air conduction
    • Rinne test