Exam 1

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Exam 1
2014-05-01 09:56:34

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  1. List the different fluid compartments of the body
    • Extracellular fluid: Plasma and Interstitial fluid
    • Intracellular fluid
  2. What is homeostasis
    The maintenance of the internal environment in a narrow range
  3. Name three factors that are regulated by homeostasis
    pH, Blood volume and temperature
  4. What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic regulation
    • Intrinsic is local to the organ
    • Extrinsic controls homeostasis outside the organ
  5. What is the difference between a feedback and feed back and feed forward response
    • Feedback: Responses made after a change has been detected
    • Feedforward: Responses made in anticipation of a change
  6. What are the 3 components to all feedback systems
    Sensor, control center and effector
  7. What are the three components to a membrane
    Lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins
  8. What does amphipathic mean and how is the phospholipid amphipathic
    • Composed of polar and non polar parts
    • The head is polar and the tail is non polar
  9. What are two functions of cholesterol in the plasma membrane
    Fluidity and stability
  10. What are three specialized types of cell junctions
    Desmosomes, tight junctions and gap junctions
  11. What are 3 methods of membrane transport
    Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport
  12. According to Fick's Law, list 3 factors that increase diffusion rate and 2 that decrease it
    • Increase: Permeability, concentration gradient, and surface area
    • Decrease: Increase in molecular weight and increase in distance/thickness
  13. If a red blood cell (300 mosm) is placed in a hypotonic solution (100 mosm) which way would water go? What would happen to the cell
    The water would go into the cell causing it to grow (hemolysis)
  14. What type of molecules need to be transported by facilitated transport and why?
    Large polar charged molecules because they can't pass the membrane alone
  15. List 2 types of carrier-mediated transport ****
    Active Transport and Facilitated Diffusion
  16. Compare and contrast facilitated diffusion and active transport
    • Both require a carrier
    • Facilitated: Down concentration and electrical gradient
    • Active: Against concentration gradient and requires ATP
  17. List the different types of vesicular transport
    Endocytosis and exocytosis
  18. Describe the concentration gradient of cations in a resting cell
    Sodium isn in ECF and potassium is in the ICF
  19. Which way do these cations want to go according to their concentration gradients
    • Sodium in 
    • Potassium out
  20. At a typical Vrest, which direction does sodium want to go based on its electrical potential? Potassium?
    • Sodium out 
    • Potassium in
  21. If the Vm was +40 mV, which direction would sodium wan to go based on its electrical potential? potassium?
    • Sodium out
    • Potassium in
  22. Describe the three different changes in Vm
    • Depolarization: Becomes less negative
    • Repolarization: Returns to Vrest
    • Hyperpolarization: Becomes more negative
  23. If a positive ion moved from the outside of the cell to the inside of the cell, would that make the Vm increase or decrease?
    Becomes less negative causing it to increase (Depolarization)
  24. If the membrane potential went from -70 mV to -50 mV, what kind of change has taken place?
  25. If Vrest becomes less negative, what would you call that type of response
  26. What determines how big of a change a graded potential will have?
    The size of the stimulus
  27. How do you change the permeability of an ion?
    Open multiple ion channels
  28. What ion is moving across the membrane during the upshot and which way is it moving?
    Sodium is coming into the cell
  29. What ion is moving across the membrane during the downshoot and which way is it moving?
    Potassium is leaving the cell
  30. Describe the voltage gated sodium channel
    • 2 gates for activation: Hinged door
    • Inactivation: Ball and chain
  31. Describe voltage gated potassium channel
    One gate
  32. What is the function of the refractory period
    Insures one way travel of action potential
  33. List 2 types of refractory periods
    Absolute refractory and relative
  34. What is the difference between contiguous conduction and saltatory conduction
    • Continuous: AP runs continuously down axon
    • Saltatory: AP jump from node to node faster than continuous
  35. List all the ion channels important for an AP and synapse
    • Voltage-Gated channels: Sodium, potassium, and calcium
    • Ligand-Gated channel
  36. Why can the axon gave an AP but a dendrite not
    They do not have the voltage gated ion channels that trigger upshoot and downshoot
  37. What is an EPSP and IPSP
    • EPSP: Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential and depolarizes neuron
    • IPSP: Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential and hyper polarizes neuron
  38. What is temporal summation
    Two AP's in close succession
  39. What is spacial summation
    Two action potentials from different presynaptic cells occur at the same time and are close enough together to overlap
  40. What are 4 types of chemical messengers
    • Autocrine
    • paracrine
    • Neurotransmitter
    • Neurohormones
  41. What is a second messenger
    Intracellular molecules that cause a cellular response in the target cells
  42. How is G protein activated?
    Ligand links to the receptor and changes G-protein shape and GTP attaches that causes GDP to fall off.
  43. What does adenylyl cyclase do (AC)
    Turns ATP into cAMP
  44. What does kinase do
    Phospholyrates a protein
  45. What does phospholipase C do (PLC)
    It takes PIP2 and breaks it down to IP3 and DAG
  46. What are the 2 devisions of the PNS
    Autonomic and Somatic
  47. What are the 2 divisions of the ANS
    • Sympathetic 
    • Parasympathetic
  48. What are the targets for the ANS
    • Cardiac and smooth muscle
    • Exocrine glands and some endocrine glands
  49. What is the target for SNS
    Skeletal muscle
  50. What neurotransmitter is released from the preganglionic parasympathetic neurons
    Acetylcholine (Ach)
  51. What neurotransmitter is released from the postganglionic sympathetic neurons
  52. What are two types of cholinergic receptors
    • Nicotinic
    • Muscarinic
  53. What are the two types of adrenergic receptors
    • Alpha
    • Beta