History Final

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Author:
celyseh8
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272693
Filename:
History Final
Updated:
2014-05-01 16:24:46
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western civilization
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History
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western civilization
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  1. European Union
    New Name for the European community after the maastricht agreements of 1991. As of 2008 it consisted of 27 member countries
  2. Maastricht agreement
    1991 agreement among member states of the european union to expand cooperation on social, foreign, judicial, and security matters and adopted a timetable for the institution of common economic policies
  3. euro
    the common currency launched by the european union in 1999 and 2002 to eliminate the cost of currency exchange and boost trade and economic interaction
  4. ethnic cleansing
    an effort through forced relocation or even mass killing to remove an unwanted ethnic group from a particular geographical area. This tactic was implemented by Yugoslavian ruler Slobodan Milosevic to unite all serbs
  5. G-8
    the group of 7 (association of world's 7 largest powers the US, Japan, Germany, France, Britain, Italy and Canada) plus Russia, which was invited to meet on some occasions but excluded on others
  6. Vladimir Putin
    emerged in 1999 to become Russia's dominant leader
  7. World Trade Organization
    growing from a multilateral trade agreement in 1947 it sought with mixed success to promote free trade throughout the world. by the early 21st century WTO meetings tended to draw demonstrations by antiglobalization activists
  8. DEC. 25, 1991
    Yelstin started anticommunist demonstrations and tore down statues of Lenin. Ukraine voted for independence from soviet union
  9. JAN. 1, 1992
    Gorbachev finally resigned and the official dissolution of the soviet union started the European map again included Russia as well as 14 other sovereign states that had once been apart of Soviet Union
  10. GULAGS
    • forced labor camps in soviet union dropped by
    • Khrushchez
  11. BERLIN WALL
    built to keep East German from moving to West Germany. Kept East Germany communist
  12. WARSAW PACT
    Military diplomatic alliance of Soviet bloc countries created to counter NATO
  13. MARSHALL PLAN
    US commitment of 13.5 billion to help western Europe rebuild after the war outline by US secretary of State General George Marshall
  14. JACQUES MARITAIN
    French catholic thinker hostile to Marxism believed that only a return to religious tradition would prevent horrors in the future
  15. JEAN PAUL SARTRE
    ant catholic – existentialist – part of French revolution believed that Marxism could be revamped
  16. EXISTENTIALISM
    a philosophical & cultural movement, often associated with Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, for whom an authentic human response to an apparently meaningless universe entailed commitment & responsibility
  17. AXIS POWERS
    Germany, Italy and Japan
  18. ALLIED POWERS
    Great Britain, US, Soviet Union and France and China
  19. BATTLE OF STALINGRAD
    turning point in war decisive WWII battle in which soviet forces launched repeated counterattacks on Germany’s 6th army stopping it from advancing farther and finally forcing It to surrender
  20. LEND-LEASE ACT
    Act by congress authorizing President to lend or lease weapons or other aid to countries the president designated
  21. YALTA conference
    1945 meeting of Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill in which they began outlining plans for the postwar order including the military occupation of Germany
  22. MANHATTAN PROJECT
    atomic bomb project was more difficult then the US thought and took a concentrated effort to have the atomic weapons ready for use
  23. COLLECTIVIZATION
    Soviet program under Stalin that reshaped agriculture by forcing peasants into government-controlled collective farms in order to finance rapid industrialization.
  24. HEINRICH HIMMLER
    director of the SS and leader of the Gestapo. This was the institutional basis for the most troubling aspects of Nazism
  25. SCHUTZSTAFFEL (S.S.)-
    specially selected Nazi elite entrusted with the most sensitive ideological tasks of the Nazi regime and responsible for many of its worst atrocities.
  26. THE GESTAPO
    the secret police of Germany. Could interpret the will of the leader and decide whether someone was guilty or not bypassing the regular court system. People feared them.
  27. LEBENSRAUM
    • for decades German imperialist could not decide whether to conquer colonies or expand by invading Europe.
    • Hitler saw the indecision as its failure in WWI. Hitler saw the future in land based stated unifying geographical contiguous with the space necessary for self sufficiency (Lebensraum) necessary for agricultural-industrial balance
  28. JOSEPH GOEBBELS
    Hitler’s propaganda minister created the Hitler myth which made Hitler seem like a hero and the man of the people, even the embodiment of healthy German ideals against the excesses and corruption that could be attributed to the Nazi party.
  29. GUERNICA
    painted by Pablo Picasso of the Spanish Pavilion at the 1937 Paris exhibition. Conveys his horror and outrage of the German bombing of the Spanish town Guernica
  30. SUN YIXIEN
    • Chinese nationalist recognizing the need to
    • adopt science and technology of the west without sacrificing the traditions and unique culture of china. Considered Father of modern China
  31. MAGINOT LINE
    a 200 mile system of elaborate permanent fortifications on France’s eastern border named for war minister Andre Maginot and built primarily during the 1930’s. It was a defense against German frontal assault in 1940 the Germans invaded by flanking the line
  32. CORPORATIVISM
    the system established in fascist Italy beginning in 1926 that sought to involve people in public life not as citizens but as producers through their roles in the economy
  33. LATERAN PACT
    formerly ending dispute between Catholic church and Italy it restored a measure of sovereignty to the Vatican with the Condordat it gave the church significant roles in public education and marriage law
  34. COMINTERN
    • association founded in March 1919 by the
    • communists (formerly Bolsheviks ) to translate their success in Russia into leadership of the international socialist movement
  35. CHARLES LINDBERGH
    completed first solo flight across the atlantic exploiting fascination of air travel
  36. WEIMAR REPUBLIC
    • forced to take responsibility for Versailles Treaty.
    • Gov. struggling to keep Germany from falling a part and revolution sprung up all over Germany high inflation. By 1920 Germany had a multiparty system and the republic eventually fell
  37. OSWALD SPENGLER
    • german thinker concerned about culture decline
    • wrote the “Decline of the West” how spirituality and creativity were giving way to materialistic based culture in the West
  38. BENEDETTO CROCE
    • Italy anti-facist explained why democracy,
    • institutions and other practices were exactly what the country needed
  39. JOSE ORTEGA Y GASSET
    concerned for the dangers of the emerging mass civilization. Spanish thinker “The revolt of the Masses
  40. SURREALISM
    • a literary and artistic movement that emerged
    • in Paris in the early 1920’s,
    • it sought to explore the subconscious, which it believed to hold something liberating for human beings
  41. BAUHAUS
    • a influential German art school founded in 1919
    • sought to adopt contemporary materials to develop new forms of architecture, design, and urban planning in response to the cultural uncertainty that followed World War I
  42. Truman Doctrine
    Gave aid to Greece and Turkey to stop them from becoming communists
  43. Iron Curtain
    Term coined by Winston Churchhill to describe takeover of eastern europe after WWII by the USSR
  44. Berlin Airlift
    1 year of flights by western allies to west Berlin to bring food and clothing, medicine etc. Cause USSR to cut off rail and road traffic
  45. Cold War Warriors US
    Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Nixon, Regaen
  46. Cold War Warrior USSR
    Stalin, Krushchev, Brezhnev
  47. Military Leaders in WWII
    • Eisenhower of US
    • Montgomery of Great Britain 
    • Rommel of Germany
  48. Battles in ETO
    Normandy Invasion, D-Day Battle of the Bulge
  49. V.E
    victory in europe May 8 1945
  50. Military leader in PTO
    • General Douglas McArthur and Chester Nimitz allies 
    • Admiral Yamamoto axis
  51. Island hopping
    strategies by allies to take over an island from Japan by aerial bombing, naval gunfire and infantry landing on islands
  52. Doctrine of Containment
    Keenan's telegram alerted US that they could not reason with USSR and to stop spread of communism

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