Psy 11 a

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eddardofwinter
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272699
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Psy 11 a
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2014-05-01 11:52:12
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  1. Swinney did an experiment in which he presented participants with the sentence, “The man was not surprised to find several spiders, roaches, and other bugs in the
    corner of the room.” He found that immediately after hearing the word “bug,”
    the participants accessed

    A. only the “insect” meaning of the word.
    B. only the “hidden listening device” meaning of the word.
    C. neither the “insect” nor the “hidden listening device” meanings of the word.
    D. both the “insect” and the “hidden listening device” meanings of the word.
    D. both the “insect” and the “hidden listening device” meanings of the word.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Lexical ambiguity studies show that people initially access

    A. only the meaning of an ambiguous word that is consistent with the context.
    B. multiple meanings of an ambiguous word.
    C. the appropriate meaning of an ambiguous word based on syntax.
    D. the appropriate meaning of an ambiguous word based on the principle of late closure.
    B. multiple meanings of an ambiguous word.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. In a study, participants listened to the
    following tape recording:

    Rumor had it that, for years, the government building had been plagued with problems. The man was not surprised when he found several spiders, roaches, and other bugs in the corner of the room.

    As participants heard the word “bugs,” they completed a lexical decision task to a test stimulus flashed on a screen. Results showed that the participants responded most slowly to the test stimulus

    A. All of these would have similar response times.
    B. SKY.
    C. ANT.
    D. SPY.
    B. SKY.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Swinney's lexical priming studies using
    ambiguous words as stimuli show that context

    A. immediately affects the activation of word meanings so that only the meaning fitting the sentence is ever activated.
    B. causes the meaning fitting the sentence to be activated first, followed by later activation of the other meaning.
    C. exerts its influence after all meanings of the word have been briefly accessed.
    D. has no effect on the activation of the word meanings.
    C. exerts its influence after all meanings of the word have been briefly accessed.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of the following is NOT influenced by
    meaning?

    A. Phonemic restoration effect
    B. Word frequency effect
    C. Word superiority effect
    D. The lexical decision task
    B. Word frequency effect
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Swinney's research measuring response time to different words with either similar or different meanings is an example of which research methodology?

    A. Word superiority
    B. Brain imaging
    C. Lexical priming
    D. Syntactic priming
    C. Lexical priming
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Syntax is

    A. the way people pronounce words in conversational speech.
    B. the rules for combining words into sentences.
    C. the meanings of words.
    D. the mental grouping of words in a sentence into phrases.
    B. the rules for combining words into sentences.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Brain imaging studies reveal that semantics
    and syntax are associated with ____ brain mechanisms.

    a. the same
    b. different
    b. different
  9. When the front part of a sentence can be
    interpreted more than one way, but the end of the sentence clarifies which meaning is correct, we say that the sentence is an example of

    A. lexical priming.
    B. speech segmentation.
    C. parsing.
    D. temporary ambiguity.
    B. speech segmentation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. The idea that the grammatical structure of a
    sentence is the primary determinant of the way a sentence is parsed is part of
    the _____ approach to parsing.

    A. temporary ambiguity
    B. semantic
    C. interactionist
    D. syntax-first
    D. syntax-first
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Consider the sentence, “Because he always
    jogs a mile seems like a short distance to him.” The principle of late closure states that this sentence would first be parsed into which of the following phrases?

    A. “Because he always jogs”
    B. “he always jogs”
    C. “Because he always jogs a mile”
    D. “a mile seems”
    C. “Because he always jogs a mile”
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which of the following is the best example of a garden path sentence?

    a. Before the police stopped the Toyota disappeared into the night.
    b. The man was not surprised when he found several spiders, roaches, and other bugs in
    the corner of the room.
    c. The cats won't bake.
    d. The Eskimos were frightened by the walrus.
    a. Before the police stopped the Toyota disappeared into the night.
  13. The principle of late closure can be described as a(n) _____ since it provides a best guess about the unfolding meaning of a sentence.

    A. insight
    B. algorithm
    C. analogy
    D. heuristic
    D. heuristic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. The interactionist approach to parsing states
    that

    A. semantics is activated as a sentence is being read.
    B. semantics is activated only at the end of a sentence.
    C. the grammatical structure of a sentence determines the initial parsing.
    D. semantics is only activated to clear up ambiguity.
    A. semantics is activated as a sentence is being read.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The crucial question in comparing syntax-first and interactionist approaches to parsing is ____ is involved.

    A. whether semantics
    B. when semantics
    C. whether syntax
    D. when syntax
    B. when semantics
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Tanenhaus and coworkers’ eye movement study presented participants with different pictures for interpreting the sentence,
    “Put the apple on the towel in the box.” Their results showed the importance of
    _____ in how we understand sentences in real-life situations.

    A. instrumental inferences
    B. environmental context
    C. the cooperative principle
    D. local connections
    B. environmental context
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Tanenhaus and coworkers' eye movement study presented participants with different pictures for interpreting the sentence,
    "Put the apple on the towel in the box." Their results support

    A. both syntax-first and interactionist approaches to parsing.
    B. the interactionist approach to parsing.
    C. the garden-path model to parsing.
    D. the syntax-first approach to parsing.
    B. the interactionist approach to parsing.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Your research advisor asks you to create
    stimuli for a discourse processing experiment to be run in the lab. Most likely, you would create stimuli where each trial you present a(n)

    A. paragraph of text.
    B. word or non-word letter string.
    C. ambiguous sentence.
    D. word.
    A. paragraph of text.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Coherence refers to the

    a. mental process by which readers create information during reading that is not
    explicitly stated in the text.
    b. principle that we process information in isolation before we link it to its context.
    c. mental process whereby ambiguity is resolved online during sentence reading.
    d. representation of the text in a reader’s mind, so that information in one part of the text is related to information in another part of the text.
    d. representation of the text in a reader’s mind, so that information in one part of the text is related to information in another part of the text.
  20. Most of the coherence in text is created by

    A. parsing.
    B. phoneme restoration.
    C. inference.
    D. syntax.
    C. inference.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Consider the following sentences: "Captain Ahab wanted to kill the whale. He cursed at
    it."  These two sentences taken together provide an example of a(n)

    A. global connection.
    B. anaphoric inference.
    C. garden path sequence.
    D. instrument inference.
    B. anaphoric inference.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Boxing champion George Foreman recently
    described his family vacations with the statement, “At our ranch in Marshall, Texas,
    there are lots of ponds and I take the kids out and we fish. And then of course, we grill them.” That a reader understands “them” appropriately (George grills fish, not his kids!) is the result of a(n) _____ inference.

    A. instrument
    B. anaphoric
    C. narrative
    D. analogic
    B. anaphoric
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Chaz is listening to his grandma reminisce
    about the first time she danced with his grandpa 60 years ago. When his grandma
    says, “It seemed like the song would play forever,” Chaz understands that it is more likely his grandma was listening to a radio playing and not a CD. This understanding
    requires Chaz use a(n)

    A. instrument inference.
    B. garden path model.
    C. age-appropriate principle.
    D. given-new contract.
    A. instrument inference.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Imagine you are interpreting a pair of
    sentences such as “The sidewalk was covered with ice” and “Ramona fell down.”
    The kind of inference we use to link these sentences together would most likely
    be a(n) _____ inference.

    A. anaphoric
    B. coherent
    C. instrument
    D. causal
    D. causal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. According
    to the situation model of text processing,

    a. people create a mental representation of what the text is about in terms of information
    about phrases, sentences, and paragraphs.
    b. people create a mental representation of what the text is about in terms of people,
    objects, locations, and events.
    c. it will take longer to understand a story that involves a complex series of situations.
    d. people draw inferences about what is happening in a story by considering both local
    and global connections.
    b. people create a mental representation of what the text is about in terms of people,objects, locations, and events.
  26. According to the idea of _____, when we read a sentence like, “Carmelo grabbed his coat from his bedroom and his backpack from the living room, walked downstairs, and called his friend Gerry,” we create a map of Carmelo's apartment and keep track of his location as he moves
    throughout the apartment.

    A. global connections
    B. speech continuity
    C. causal inference
    D. situation models
    D. situation models
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. The given-new contract is a method for
    creating

    A. anaphoric inferences between consecutive sentences.
    B. resolution of a lexically ambiguous sentence.
    C. coherence in people's conversations.
    D. children's mastery of syntax.
    C. coherence in people's conversations.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. When two people engage in a conversation, if
    one person produces a specific grammatical construction in her speech and then
    the other person does the same, this phenomenon is referred to as

    A. garden-pathing.
    B. phonemic restoration.
    C. anaphoric inferencing.
    D. syntactic priming.
    D. syntactic priming.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. The ____ states that the nature of a culture's
    language can affect the way people think.

    A. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    B. cooperative principle
    C. interactionist approach
    D. given-new contract
    A. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. A psycholinguist conducts an experiment with a
    group of participants from a small village in Asia and another from a small
    village in South America. She asked the groups
    to describe the bands of color they saw in a rainbow and found they reported
    the same number of bands as their language possessed primary color words. These
    results

    A. contradict the word frequency effect.
    B. contradict the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
    C. support the word frequency effect.
    D. support the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
    D. support the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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