IPHY 4

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Author:
JWK
ID:
272709
Filename:
IPHY 4
Updated:
2014-05-01 15:41:20
Tags:
IPHY
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Description:
Exam 4
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  1. Pine Ridge
    • Oglala Lakota (Sioux) Reservation
    • 8th largest reservation in the nation
  2. Health Conditions in Pine Ridge
    • 8 times higher than national average for diabetes
    • 3 times higher than national average for infant mortality rate
    • 5 times higher than national average for cervical cancer
  3. Dental Plaque
    • Composition: Micro-organisms 
    • Cause: Carbohydrates/Poor hygiene
    • Result: Inflammation/cavities
  4. CVD Plaque
    • Composition: Cholesterol/Immune Cells
    • Cause: Poor Diet/Arterial damage
    • Result: CVD/High Blood Pressure
  5. Cause of Paralysis
    • Trauma with nerve injury (accidents)
    • Stroke
    • Polio myelitis
    • Botulism
    • Spina Bifida
    • Multiple sclerosis
    • Guillian-Barre Syndrome - From bacteria
    • Curare - Poison dart, happens for a hour
    • Sleep paralysis
  6. C1-C4
    Breathing Exercises
  7. C4-C5
    Elastic bands/biceps and shoulder blades
  8. C6-C8
    Gym or fitness center with modified moves
  9. Obesity from Paralysis
    • 60% overweight
    • Weight gain makes movement more difficult
    • Difficult to transfer
    • Pressure sores
  10. Diabetes from Paralysis
    • Higher risk
    • More fat/alters metabolism/effects how insulin used
    • SCI hides symptoms - dehydration/appetite
    • Circulation/blood flow/tissue damage
  11. Pressure Sores
    • Compression of skin/loss of muscle tone/decreased circulation
    • Lack of movement or weight shifting
    • Thinner skin with aging/susceptible
  12. Cardiovascular Disease
    • Obesity/lower met./inability to burn fat
    • Exaggerated post-prandial lipensis response
    • Lipids levels before digested/deposited/blood vessel walls
  13. Protein
    Wound healing/pressure sores double
  14. Calcium
    Osteoporosis in lower limbs/vitamin D
  15. Sweating
    Level of injury/autonomic nervous system/body temp
  16. Blood Pressure
    Symp. Nervous system/elevates BP/light-headed
  17. Dutch Hunger Winter
    • German cut off food supplies in the Netherlands in WW2
    • Calories reduced to 500-1000 calories per person
  18. Epigenome
    • Proteins and other molecules that regulate expression of genes
    • Turning genes "on" and "off"
    • Inherited or altered
  19. Epigenetics
    • Future generation effects
    • -Embryonic development
    • Modifying your epigenome
  20. Cutting Weight
    • Need to cut weight right before weight class
    • Why? Going from 183lbs to 171lbs weight class gives advantage (for example)
  21. Dehydration
    • Cutting water intake
    • Spitting in bottles
    • "...eight ounces of water"
  22. Chewing Tobacco
    • In 2007, 33% NCAA wrestlers used this
    • HS wrestlers used this
    • Start because it helps with anxiety and cutting down water
  23. Sweat suits and saunas
    • Banned by NCAA in 1997
    • No bans in HS or before HS
    • Hot room practices can reach 82 degrees
  24. Creatine Abuse
    • "Water Wings"
    • Water intake
    • Dehydration
  25. Hydration Testing
    • Done once early in a season
    • Gravity strips (<1020) Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)
    • Easy to cheat - scoop water from the toilet
    • Not done prior to HS
  26. Laxatives
    • Mineral and electrolyte imbalance
    • Severe Dehydration 
    • Dependency
    • "Lazy colon"
    • Easy to buy, over the counter
  27. Bad Dieting
    • Ghostly Figures
    • Not eating, Binge eating, Bulimia, Anorexia, etc.
    • "Two eggs, one piece of dry toast, eight ounces of water"
  28. Wilkie's Syndrome
    • Block in the upper GI Tract
    • Throwing up after working out
    • Only about 400 in history had this
  29. Anorexia
    • 81% cut intake
    • 21% food deprivation
    • 10x more likely for wrestlers 
    • Life long battle
  30. Bulimia
    • 11% wrestlers throw up to cut weight
    • Binge and purge
    • Results are opposite
  31. Binge Eating
    • Eating right after weigh in
    • Almost every wrestler
    • Weight Cycling
    • Potential metabolic issues
  32. Floating Method
    How much weight you can lose when you're not doing anything
  33. Blood Nose?
    • Every ounce counts
    • No rules or regulation
    • Combined with blood thinner
    • Damage to lining
  34. Anorexia Nervosa
    • Biological effects - Women doesn't get a period
    • Self imposed starvation
  35. Pregnancy
    • Rapid changes 
    • Edema 
    • Nutrients
    • 30% of women don't gain enough weight during pregnancy
  36. Pregorexia
    • Women's drive to control their weight during pregnancy
    • Counting calories of what they eat
    • Vomiting on purpose
    • Vulnerable Woman - woman that has a history of eating disorder and woman who has been sexually abused
  37. Prevention of Pregorexia
    • Woman need to be honest with her doctor
    • Go to nutritionist 
    • Make it about the baby and not the mom
  38. Low Birth Baby Weight
    • Less than 5.5 lbs of birth, stopped growing in the womb
    • High initial risk of death
    • Initial health problems
    • Make it hard for breastfeeding
  39. Mental issues of Low Birth Weight
    • More likely to have depression
    • Underdeveloped social and emotional skills
    • Less likely to graduate HS and less likely to go to college (30%)
  40. Dutch Hunger Winter Babies
    • Last two trimesters were low birth weight babies
    • First trimester had healthy birth weights
    • Both developed heart disease and diabetes
  41. Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study
    • Early-mid gestation mortality rate was 11%
    • Last gestation mortality rate was 14%
  42. Preemie
    • Premature infants
    • Doesn't have enough time to develop in the womb before needing to adapt to life outside of the mother
  43. Premature Birth
    • > 3 weeks before due date
    • Extremely preterm: <25 weeks
    • Very preterm: < 32 weeks
    • Late preterm: 34-37 weeks

    Average pregnancy is 40 weeks
  44. Symptoms of Prematurity
    • Small size, large head
    • Angular features
    • Transparent skin
    • Lanugo
    • Low body temperature
    • Respiratory distress
    • No swallowing/sucking reflexes
  45. Short Term Complications of Preemies
    • Issues with breathing, heart, brain
    • Lack temperature control
    • Gastroinstesinal
    • Blood
    • Metabolism
    • Immune System
  46. Long Term Complications of Preemie
    • Celebral Palsy - movement disorder
    • Impaired cognitive skills
    • Vision problems
    • Hearing 
    • Dental
    • Behavioral/Psychological
    • Chronic health issues
  47. Total Parenternal Nutrition (TPN) History
    • IV Nutrition
    • Started using on dogs in 1913
    • Perfected it and started to use it on humans in 1968

    • Has high protein and lipids
    • Has low carbohydrates
  48. What is monitored while using TPN
    • Blood Glucose
    • Electrolytes
    • Blood Urea
    • Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium
    • Triglycerides, leukocytes, lymphocytes
  49. Long term effects of TPN
    • Long term effects of catch up growth - obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus
    • Prolonged under-nutrition -> neurological deficits

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