RAD-139 FINAL PT.3 CH.7-9

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  1. what affects cell radiosensitivity
    mitotic activity
  2. What is the Law of Bergonie and Tribondeau?
    radiosensitivity is directly proportional to reproductive activity and indirectly proportional degree of differentiation
  3. How does oxygen affect cell radiosensitivity?
    • the more oxygen a cell has the more radiosensitive it is
    • the less o2 the cell has the more radioresistant
  4. what is the most radiosensitive blood cel
  5. What will 0.25 Gy (25 rads) of radiation do to the hematological system?
    it will produce a great depression and measurable decrease in hematological circulation
  6. what is LD 50/30 and 50/60
    stands for lethal dose required to produce death in 50% of the population in 30 days or 60 days
  7. what is the LD 50/30 for humans expressed in gy
    300-400 RAD(3-4gy)
  8. what is the radiosensitivity of the following:
    epithelial tissue
    nervous tissue
    • lymphocyte = radiosensitive
    • epithelial tissue = radiosensitive
    • muscle = radioresistant
    • nervous tissue = radioresistant
  9. what reproductive cells are most radiosensitive
    • the germ cells:
    • spermatogonia
    • oogonia
  10. a dose of _____ is enough to cause temporary sterility for 12 months
    a dose of ______ is enough to cause permanent sterility
    doses as low as _____ can do what to sperm count
    • 2-3 gy
    • 5-6gy
    • 10 rad; depress
  11. what is the window of maximum sensitivity for pregnant women
    8-15wks after gestation
  12. which cells has the shortest life span in 24 hrs of blood cells
    which wbc manufactured where are most radiosensitive
    • lymphocytes
    • when manufactured in bone marrow
  13. what is one thing that is true concerning LOW-LET radiation
    causes damage by radiolysis
  14. as LET increases, so does RBE
    T or F
  15. A direct action occurs when
    ionizing particles interact with vital biologic macromolecule
  16. a whole body dose of a minimum of ____ devlivered within a few days could produce a measurable hemtological depression
    .25 gy
  17. indirect effect of ionizing radiation refers to which of the following:
    genetic effects
    ionization that occurs directly on the target molecule
    ionization occurs in one location that can produce effects at a distant location
    organisim death occurs
    ionization occurs in one location that can produce effects at a distant location
  18. what type of interaction between radiation and matter is most likely to occur between x-radiation and human tissue
    indirect action
  19. what is not true concerning the target theory:
    a moster molecule is necessary for the survival of the cell
    if a non DNA molecule is destroyed by radiation, the cell will die
    if a master molecule is inactivated, the cell will die
    DNA is the irreplaceable master molecule
    if a non DNA molecule is destroyed by radiation, the cell will die
  20. what cellular effect of irradiation occurs when cells die without attempting division during the interphase portion of the cell cycle
  21. what cellular effect of irradiation occurs when a cell loses its ability to procreate but continues to live
    reproductive death
  22. the law of Bergonie and Tribondeau states thst the most radioresistant cell is:
    highly mitotic
    high reproductive activity  
  23. which of the following tissue type is most radioresistant:
  24. which of the following is not true:
    oxygen enhances tissue radiosensitivity
    unspecialized or undifferentiated are radiosensitive
    hypoxic cells are radiosensitive
    cells with long mitotic phases are more radiosensitive
    hypoxic cells are radiosensitive = wrong because they are radioresistant
  25. high let does what damage to DNA
    irrepairable damage caused by multiple strand breaks
  26. most interactions that are involved with ionizing radiation are ______?
    another term for an indirect interactions with radiation is
      • indirect interactions
      • radiolysis
  27. what happens during a direct action
    the damage results from ionization of atoms on master molecules leading to inactive or dysfunctional molecules
  28. two free radicals (OH) can combine to form what and are poisonous (toxic) to the cell
    H202 hydrogen peroxide
  29. the presence of what element promotes indirect damage through the formation of free radicals
  30. immature cells are AKA?
    unspecialized/undifferentiated cells
  31. unspecialized cells are cells that are _____
    unspecialized are known as
      • immature or constantly reproducing
      • cells of embryo -fetus
      • undifferentiation/immature
  32. Specialized/differentiated cells are cells that do not
    cells that do not reproduce as rapidly
  33. what is the worst break in the dna chain
    base break
  34. mature spermatogonia are _______ to radiation
    insensitive or more resistant
  35. differentiate between somatic and genetic effects
    • somatic effects is biological damage done to the body (skin reddening burns etc..)
    • genetic effects are due to radiation but are hereditary
  36. stochastic is aka as ______ & ______
    probablistic and non threshold
  37. another 2 terms for nonstochastic is
  38. another 2 terms for non threshold
  39. what is the only disease that is non linear threshold and the curve looks like a sigmoid
  40. nonstochastic effects are also called
    deterministic efects
  41. somatic early nonstochastic threshold determinstic effects appear within
    minutes hours days or weeks following substantial exposure
  42. as dose increases in nonstochastic effects the____ increases
    severity of effect
  43. what are the high dose effects cause in a threshold determinstic nonstochastic
    are these seen in the diagnostic range
      • nausea fatigue erythema epilation(hair loss) blood disorders instestinal disorders fever depressed sperm count sterility and CNS damage desquamation(skin shedding)
      • no unless the exam is high level fluoroscopy
  44. what is ARS
    • acute radiation syndrom:
    • radiation sickness that occur in humans after whole body reception of large doses of ionizing radiation delivered over a short period of time
  45. what are the stages of ARS and describe them (4)
    • prodromal
    • latent
    • manifest illness
    • recovery or death
  46. during the prodromal stage how much radiation is needed to allow this stage to take place
    what symptoms are taken place here
      • 1gy (100RAD)
      • leucopenia fatigue vomiting diarrhea
  47. what is the latent period of the acute syndrome radiation sickness
      • occurs 1 one week after with symptoms nonexistent
      • recovery or lethal effects begin
  48. during the manifest illness stage what happens
    list some symptoms  
    symptoms of the hematological cerebrovascular and GI effects become visible

      • apathy, confusion dehydration epilation exhaustion vomiting
      • fever headaches
  49. what is a sublethal dose
    a dose of radiation that does not kill you
  50. when does the hematopoeitic syndrome occur (gy)
    what is the main cause of during this syndrome
    • 1-2 gy
    • the radiation decreases the number of RBC's WBC's and platelets in circulation
  51. when does gastrointestinal syndrome occur
    what is the most sensitive portion of the GI tract
    • 6gy peaks at 10 gy
    • most sensitive portion is the epithelial lining of the small intestine
  52. when does cerebrovascular syndrome occur
    50 gy or more
  53. what are the mjaor types (3) of late somatic effects (stochastic)
    • cancer and genetic effects
    • Carcinogenesis
    • Cataractogensis
    • Embryological effects (birth defects)
  54. what is desquamation
    epilation :
    • shedding of the outer layer of skin
    • hair loss
    • skin reddenning
  55. identify the effects of radiation on the hematopoietic system
    • reduction in the number of the major three cells that make up this system
    • RBC'S
    • WBC'S
    • cells produced from bone marrow
  56. what is a dose response curve
    is a graphic demonstration of observable effects of exposure in response to radiation dose
  57. which is a threshold nonstochastic dose response curve
    which is a nonthreshold-stochastic dose response curve.
    which is the linear quadratic

    Image Upload 1
    • C
    • B
    • A
  58. what type of dose response curve is a sigmoid or s shaped
    what does it indicate  
    • nonlinear dose response
    • indicates high dose cellular response to the radiation within specific tissues such as skin lens of eye and blood cells
  59. how many gy will induce the formation of cataracts
  60. List examples of human evidence for radiation carcinogenisis
    • japanese atomic bomb survivors
    • and epidemiological studies conducted many years after subjects were exposed high dosage of radiation
    • radiation induced cancer is low frequency compared to to the natural incidence of malignancies
  61. what are the stages of gestation in humans and describe
    • preimplantation stage -0-9 days after conception
    • organogensis - 10-12wks after conception
    • the fetal stage -
  62. During what stage is it most likely that embryonic death would occur from 5-15 rads of radiation?During what stage is it most likely that radiation induced abnormalities would occur and is most sensitive?
    • preimplantation
    • organogensis stage
  63. Is radiation thought to produce primarily dominant(mutations at molecular level) or recessive (not expressed for several generations) mutations?
    recessive because both parents must have the same genetic defect which is located on the same part of a specific DNA base sequence in both
  64. What is the Doubling Dose Concept?
    it is a radiation dose that causes the number of spontaneous mutations occuring in a given generation to increase to two times therir original number
  65. which of the following is a stochastic effect:
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RAD-139 FINAL PT.3 CH.7-9
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