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Two divisions of the nervous system?
- Central Nervous System (Brain, Spinal Chord)
- Peripheral Nervous System
Two divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
- Somatic (those we control)
Two Divisions of the Autonomic?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
Parts of a neuron?
- Cell Body (Soma)
Stimulated by environmental changes or the activities of other cells
Contains the nucleus and most of the metabolic machinery (mitochondria, ribosomes, etc).
Conducts nerve impulse away from the Soma?
Affect another neuron or effector (muscle, gland, etc.)
In resting state, which part of the cell (inside or outside) is positively charged? Negatively?
- Outside -- Positively
- Inside -- Negatively
The joining of two neurons.
The parasympathetic and voluntary are controlled by what neurotransmitter?
The sympathetic system is controlled by what neurotransmitter?
The spinal chord exists the skull via what?
How many cervical vertebrae are there?
How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
How many Lumbar vertebrae are there?
How many Sacral vertebrae are there?
How many coccygeal vertebrae are there?
How do you remember the number of bones in spinal chord?
- Breakfast at 7. (Cervical)
- Lunch at 12. (Thoracic)
- Dinner at 5. (Lumbar)
- Bed at 9. (Sacral + Cocygeal -- 5+4)
What are the two paths for blood in the brain?
Carotid system and vertebrobasilar system.
Where do the two blood flow systems of the brain meet?
Circle of Willis
How many nerve fibers exit the spinal chord?
Which fibers carry impulses TO THE CNS from the body?
Afferent or sensory fibers
Which fibers carry impulse TO THE BODY from the CNS?
Efferent of motor fibers
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
What are the four types of peripheral nerves?
- Somatic sensory -- transmit external senses to the CNS
- Somatic motor -- transmit to voluntary muscles
- Visceral (autonomic) sensory -- transmit signals from visceral organs to CNS
- Visceral (autonomic) motor -- control involuntary muscles (heart, intestines, etc)
Where is the sympathetic nervous system located?
Near the thoracic and lumbar part of the spinal chord.
What structures are associated with the parasympathetic nervous system?
Cranial nerves and the sacral plexus.
What two mechanisms typically produce altered mental status?
- Structural lesions
- Toxic Metabolic State
Which cranial nerve controls the face?
Facial Nerve (CN VII)
Which CN controls the pupils?
CN III, the oculomotor nerve
Which CNs control eye movement?
- CN III oculomotor
- CN IV trochlear
- CN VI abducens
Breathing pattern of apnea lasting 10 to 60 seconds followed by gradually increasing depth and frequency?
Rapid, deep respirations caused by severe metabolic and CNS problems?
Hyperventilation caused by a lesion in the CNS, often characterized by rapid, deep, noisy respirations? Also common just before death.
Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation
Poor respriations due to CNS damage causing ineffective thoracic muscular coordination?
Ataxic (Biot's) Respirations
Breathing characterized by prolonged inspiration unrelieved by expiration attempts. This is seen in patients with damage to the upper part of the pons?
What is the target goal for ETCO2?
35 to 40 mmHg
What are the three components of GCS? How many points are assigned to each?
- Eye opening (4)
- Verbal Response (5)
- Motor Response (6)
What are the three components of Cushing's Triad? What do they indicate?
- Increased Blood Pressure
- Decreased pulse
- Irregular respirations
Increased intercranial pressure
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