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. What would you like to do?
Formal vs Informal
- Formal- Specific Objectives and Goals
- Informal- little written down
- Provides Direction
- Reduces impact of change
- Minimizes waste and redundancy and sets standards to facilitate control
Management by Objectives
- 1) Goals must be specific
- 2) Manager and subordinates must agree on goals
- 3) Each objective must have time constraint
- 4) Provide constant feedback on progress on goals
- 1) Identify Problem
- 2) ID decision criteria
- 3) Develop alternatives
- 4) Analysis of alternatives
- 5) Selection of alternative
- 6) Implement
- 7) Evaluation
Heuristic-encouraging a person to learn
Availability vs Representative
- Available- decisions based on readily available information/internet
- Representative- look at others who are successful and attach better than average odds.
Contingency approach to Decision Making
- Programmed- decisions made on well structured routine problems that occur every day
- Un-programmed- once a while decisions
Decisions making styles
- Directive-Low Tolerance for Indefinite, Rational (men)
- Analytic- High tolerance for Indefinite, Rational
- Conceptual- Many alternatives, High tolerance for Indefinite, Long term Solution, Intuitive
- Behavioral- Intuitive, Low tolerance for Indefinite
Advantages/Disadvantages Group Decision Making
- more complex info
- different points of view
- generate alternatives
- Higher acceptance of decision
- Higher legitimacy
- Group think
- Ambiguous responsibility
- Minority domination
What was Asch Studies?
10 student experiment on Group Conformity
6 elements of Structure in an Organization
- Work Specialization- each discrete step of a job done by diff. individual rather than 1 indiv. do whole job.
- Unity of Command- Principle that no employee should report to more than one boss
- Span of Control - # of employees a manager can effectively and efficiently manage
- Authority- rights for manager to give orders and expect them to be followed
- Responsibility- obligation to perform assigned activities
- Centralization- higher the level where decisions are made
- Decentralization - decision making authority to lowest levels in organization
- Departmentalization- grouping of activities in organization by function, product, customer, geography, or process
Group of people who all perform the same function in the same department (Acct. & Fin.)
Departmentalization focuses on different products within an organization.
- Divide area into territories
Links units around certain skills to complete task
- Customer- Group organization around certain customers
- The Matrix
Mechanist- looks for stable environment; Routine; Efficiency;Change is Slow
Organic-Always Changing; Loose Structure
Formalization- Deals w amount of rules; Formal; standard operating procedures Ex. Military
Use Strategies for?
Strategy is to raise revenue or lower your cost to increase profits
Types of Production
- Unit Production- Organic
- -Production of Single Units
- Mass production- Mechanistic
- Continuous Process Production- Machinery
Drawbacks to Over Planning
- Creates Rigidity-no freedom to experience better ways
- Tough to Plan- for a dynamic environment
10 Characteristics of Organization Culture degrees
- 1) Member Identity-employee 2 organization
- 2) Group Emphasis- work activities organized around groups
- 3) People Focus- Management decisions are focused on employees
- 4) Unit integration- encouraged to operate in a coordinated, interdependent manner
- 5) Control- rules, regulations, and direct supervision used to oversee and control employee behavior
- 6) Risk Tolerance-encouraged to be aggressive, innovative, and risk seeking
- 7) Reward Criteria- allocation of salary increases/promos, on performance rather than seniority, favoritism, or any other non performance factors
- 8) Conflict Tolerance- employees encouraged to air conflicts and criticisms openly
- 9) Means End Orientation-
- 10) Open Systems Focus-Monitoring and respond 2 changes in external environment
Actions of a Bounded-Rational decision maker.
- Construct simplified models that extract features from problems w/o capturing complexity.
- Act rational within the simplified model.
Two types of decision problems and Two types of decisions
- Well-structured and Ill-Structured.
- Well-Structured- straightforward, familiar, easily defined, and solved using Programmed decisions such as procedures, rules, and policies.
Ill Structured are new, unusual or incomplete information
that are solved using Nonprogrammed decisions.
What would you like to do?
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