sociology final

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  1. Emile Durkheim
    • structural functionalism
    • anomie
    • studied sociology at institutional level
  2. Karl Marx
    • conflict theorist
    • looked at means of production, manufacturing ownership and the conditions of workers
  3. Charles Cooley
    • The looking glass self
    • we see ourselves through others perception of us
  4. W.I. Thomas
    Thomas theorm- if a situation is defined as real then the consequences of those actions are quiet real regardless if the definition us true
  5. C. Wright Mills
  6. August Comte
    • founder of sociology
    • emphasized positivism
  7. Robert Merton
    • strain theory
    • society holds out some goals to all citizens but does not provide them with equal means to obtain these goals
  8. Max Weber
    • symbolic interactionism
    • vesthehen- the process by which an outside observer of a culture relates to an indigenous population on their terms rather than interpreting that population by the observer’s own culture
  9. Robert Denton
    • studied language
    • author of language, symbols and media article
  10. Erving Goffman
    • stigma- powerfully negative label
    • describes social behavior in theater terms
    • symbolic interactionism
  11. Immanuel Wallerstein
  12. Jane Addams
    • first woman to earn a Nobel Peace Prize
    • worked with feminist movements
  13. Harriet Martineau
    • feminist
    • compared women's role to slavery
    • encouraged women to become educated
  14. positive philosophy
    information derived from logical and mathematical treatments and reports of sensory experience is the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge
  15. Reliability
    extent to which a measure produces consistent results
  16. Validity
    the degree to which measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study
  17. Scientific Method
    systematic organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem
  18. Functional Imperatives
    communication, control of conflict, socialization
  19. Structural functionalism
    views society as a system, believes there are functional requirements that must be met in a society for it's survival and believe that social structures exist because they serve a function
  20. Symbolic Interactionism
    examines how individuals and groups interact, focusing on the creation of personal identity through interaction others
  21. Conflict Theory
    perspective focuses on social class exploitation between the bourgeoisie (the haves) and the proletariat (the have not’s – the working class) with emphasis on unequal distribution of wealth and differential access to wealth, power and prestige
  22. Social Imagination
    the vivid awareness of the relationship between experience and the wider society
  23. language
    cornerstone of all known human societies
  24. Sociology
    systematic and scientific study of individuals, social groups and society
  25. culture
    what you do in society
  26. Social stratification
    a ranking processwhich not only reflects social differences but also creates and maintains differences by socializing individuals/groups into a structure of inequality
  27. occupational prestige
    how much your career is valued in society
  28. Social Class system
    fluid, partially achieved, economically based, large scale and impersonal
  29. Prejudice
    preconceived notions or ideas about a group or category of people (attitude)
  30. Descrimination
    unequal treatment about a group or category of people (attitude)
  31. stereotypes
    oversimplified and generalized statement on a group
  32. Assimilation
    a process in which minority groups lose their istinctive identities and conform to cultural patterns of the dominant groups
  33. Cultural Relativity
    a concept that cultural norms and values derive their meaning within a specific social context
  34. cultural pluralism
    Cultural pluralism is a term used when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities, and their values and practices are accepted by the wider culture provided they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society
  35. ethnocentrism
    viewing other countries based on your countries values
  36. society
    a group of people that share a geographic location
  37. norms
    • guidelines for thoughts, beliefs and behaviors
    • folkways
    • mores
    • laws
  38. ascribed statuses
    status born into of given to an individual by society
  39. achieved status
    a status earned
  40. culture shock
    discomfort or nervousness when entering an unfamiliar society
  41. Demographic Transition Theory
    • stage 1: high birth and death rates, population expanding
    • stage 2: high birth rates and low death rates, improved food supply, sanitation and reduce in disease
    • stage 3: low birthrated because of increased mobilization, contraception, wages, smaller families
    • stage 4: low birth and death rates, may drop below replacement rates
  42. absolute poverty
    the minimum requirement needed for people to have basic standards of food, clothing, health and shelter
  43. relative poverty
    a term used to describe poverty not by assessing resources but by comparing their incomes relative to society
  44. feminism of poverty
    phenomenon in which single female parents are more likely to be poor
  45. strain theory
    society holds out some goals to all citizens but does not provide them with equal means to obtain these goals
  46. labeling theory
    not deviant until caught
  47. deviance
    violation of a social norm
  48. conformity
    adherence to social norms
  49. primary deviance
    not sanctioned
  50. secondary deviance
    sanctioned
  51. global stratification
    the idea that as nations and communities become more connected the worlds population becomes advanced due to trade and industry
  52. globalization
    the interconnectedness of nations polical,sociological and economical aspects
  53. world systems model
    portrayal of the global economy as a dynamic system
  54. core nations
    production is based on technology that relies more on machinery than on human labor and in which human labor is relatively skilled and highly paid. Tend to be wealthy, yet most of the people who live in them are not. Fastest growing segment of the population in those countries are aged 65 or older.
  55. semi peripheral nations
    Production is based on a mixture of intermediate levels or machinery and human labor, in which labor is semiskilled and paid intermediate levels of Wages. Although relatively poor, there is usually an elite group of wealthy citizens
  56. peripheral nations
    Productionis based on technology that relies more on cheap human labor than on expensive machinery.  Usually quite poor; however, not everyone who lives in the periphery is poor.Death rates are lower than birth rates with87% of the population under age 25.
  57. race
    categories of people set apart from others because of socially defined physical characteristics
  58. racism
    a system of domination that operates in social processes and social institutions
  59. contact hypothesis
    the idea that racism will be reduced due to exposure
  60. exploitation theory
    the idea that an integrated workforce will reduce racism marxist
  61. gender
    social construction of masculine and feminine roles
  62. biosocial view of gender
    based on sexual dimorphism
  63. sexual dimorphism
    2 distinct categories of people sex/your biology determines your gender
  64. strong social constructionism
    not two distinct categories of people, spectrum of gender
  65. hypersexualization
    over sexualization of media
  66. hedgeumonic
    value masculinity, don't want change, privileged males
  67. complicite
    values masculinity, not resistant to change
  68. marginalized
    usually have less power to begin with due to race
  69. subordinated
    less power because of sexuality
  70. feminism
    political, social and economic equality movement for woman
  71. 1st woman's movement
    • 148-1920
    • ended with the 19th amendment (right to vote)
    • focused on suffrage, temperance and abolition
  72. 2nd woman's movement
    • mid 1960's-easly 1990's
    • educated middle class white woman
    • focused on job opportunities, equal pay and reproductive rights
    •  colored woman felt disenfranchised
  73. womanism
    woman of colors needs
  74. male way
    duplicate men's techniques in the work place
  75. Individual Racism
    racism expressed by individuals or small groups of people
  76. Environmental racism
    racial discrimination in environmental policy-making, enforcement of sanctions and laws, targeting of hazardous waste sites in racially minority communities to a disproportionate degree as when compared to location of dumping grounds and waste sites in other areas.
  77. Institutional racism
    those established laws, customs, and practices which systematically reflect and produce racial inequalities in society
  78. power
    is the ability to realize one’s will even against the resistance and opposition of others.
  79. prestige
    • stops rational thought
    • Charles Kooley
  80. Authority
    is a form of legitimate power that has widespread social approval and is obeyed because people believe that those who exercise it have a right to do so
  81. Influence
    is the ability to affect the behavior of others through persuasion, rewards, inducements and appeals to reason
  82. Dimension 1
    group a has better resources which make them win
  83. dimension 2
    group a ddoesnt let group talk (asses their agenda)
  84. dimension 3
    group a convinces group b to go along with the agenda
  85. The Power Elite
    the top percent of population that makes all the decisions
  86. gerentology
    study of the elderly and aging
  87. graying of the globe
    aging of the world 7% <65 years old
  88. social movement
    a conscious, concerted and sustained effort by ordinary people to change or preserve some aspect of their society by using extrainstitutional means
  89. political process perspective
    movement concerned with politics not individual psychological states and are a rational for of politics.
  90. resource mobilization process
    emphasizes resources such as labor and money, for generating and sustaining movements
  91. biographical availability
    an individuals freedom to participate in a movement or protest due to a lack of constraining obligations created by work, school, family or community
  92. collective identity
    one's belief that one belongs to a certain group with distinctive characteristics and interests
  93. demography
    the study of a population size particularly in relation to fertility rates, mortality rates and migration across borders
  94. population momentum
    the tendency of a population that has been changing in size to continue change in size even if factors such as fertility and mortality have shifted to levels that in the long run, imply no change in population size
  95. epidemiology
    the study of health related events in populations, their characteristics, their causes, and their consequences

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