CH 12: Exercise and Quality of Life

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CH 12: Exercise and Quality of Life
2014-05-06 22:01:42
exercise quality stretching
Improving the Quality of Life
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  1. Exercise
    An activity that improves fitness
  2. Component of Fitness -
    considered aerobic or anaerobic
  3. Aerobic
    • using large muscle groups
    • requires oxygen
    • non-stop activity at least 20 minutes
  4. Anaerobic
    • oxygen deprived
    • stop and go
    • high intensity
    • short duration
  5. Components of Fitness -
    Muscular Strength and Endurance
    • Strength - maximum force a muscle exerts
    • Endurance - muscles ability to keep moving continuously without fatigue
    • Improve? - repetitions and sets (8-12 reps per muscle group, 1-3 sets per muscle group), work larger to smaller muscle groups
  6. Benefits of strength and endurance training
    • increase size and strength of muscle fibers
    • improve posture
    • prevents muscle loss
    • enhances body composition
    • increases metabolism
  7. Components of Fitness -
    • ability to move and stretch
    • lose flexibility with age
    • factors affect levels of flexibility
    • Proper Stretching Techniques - hold each stretch for 10-30 seconds, stretch to discomfort not pain, do not stretch a cold muscle, NEVER bounce
  8. Benefits of Stretching
    • improved balance
    • better posture
    • reduce low back pain
    • less risk of injury
    • relaxing
    • better range of motion
  9. Be Fit to Benefit
    • Compared to people who are unfit, being moderately to highly fit can add 6-9 years to your life
    • Being fit is mediine for the body and mind
    • "Those who do not make time for exercise, will fine time for illness"
  10. Being fit Improves
    • Bone strength
    • Immune function
    • Mood
    • Self-esteem
    • Muscle strength
    • Heart and Lung function
    • Flexibility of muscles and joints
    • Balance and Coordination
    • Ability to do daily activities
  11. Being Fit Decreases
    • Blood cholesterol
    • Blood pressure
    • Risk of heart disease
    • Risk of diabetes
    • Risk of obesity
    • Risk of certain cancers
    • Stress
  12. Stick with your exercise program
    • Don't overdo it
    • Have fun
    • Write it down
    • Make it important
  13. Wellness Goals for the Nation
    • a nation of unhealthy people drains anational resources by rducing worker productivity and incresing the amount of money the government has to spend on health care - prevent unnecessary disease - improve quality of life
    • First presented in 1980, revised every 10 years
  14. Physical Activity
    • All physical movement, regardless of the level of energy expenditure or the reason you do it
    • 3 types: occupational - lifestyle - leisure
  15. Benefits of Physical Activity
    • Improve muscle tone and levels of body fat
    • Improve energy levels
    • Increases ability to perform everyday tasks
    • Achieve total wellness
    • Reduce risk of heart disease
    • Reduce risk of diabetes mellitus
    • Increased Bone Mass
    • Easier Aging
    • Increase Longevity
    • Improved Psychological well-being
  16. 5 Major Components of Total Health-related Physical Fitness
    • Cardiorespiratory Endurance
    • Muscular Endurance
    • Muscular Endurance
    • Flexibility
    • Body Composition
  17. How to Change?
    • Assessing your habits
    • Identifying behavior change barriers
    • Changing unhealthy behaviors
  18. Resources
    • My Fitness Pal application
    • American College of Sports Medicine
    • American Heart Association
    • Healthy People
    • WebMD
    • -sample program for increasing physical activity in your book
  19. General Principles of Exercise for Health and Fitness
    • All exercise programs will vary according to the individuals need
    • The more you exercise, and the greater the variety of activities you do, the more fit you will be
  20. Overload Principle
    • To improve physical fitness, systems of the body must be stressed
    • Achieve an overload by increasing the intensity of exercise - using heavier weight
    • "No pain, no gain" NOT ACCURATE - does not need to be punishing training session
  21. Principles of Progression
    • Extension of the overload principle
    • Overload should be increased gradually during the course of a physical fitness program
    • Safe rate?: no more than 10% each week - 20 min per day, x 1 week / 22 min per day x 2 week, [people vary in tolerance for exercise overload]
    • Maintenance
  22. Principles of Specificity
    exercise training effect is specific to those muscles involved in the activity
  23. Principle of Recuperation
    the need for a rest period between exercise training sessions
  24. Overtraining
    • Failure to get enough rest between sessions
    • Sore and stiff muscles - general fatigue
  25. Principle of Reversibility
    • Going too long between exercise sessions, too inconsistent 
    • lose the progress you have made - loss of fitness due to inactivity
  26. Designing your Exercise Program
    • Need a correct "dose" of exercise to effectively promote physical fitness
    • Exercise prescription
    • Setting goals: if you do not know what you are working towards - provide structure and motivation
    • Selecting activities: specific type of activity to be performed: you will enjoy - have access to - carries little risk for injury
    • Warm up: 5-15 minutes - reduces injury - decreases strain on the heart - vessels dilate - elevates muscle temperature
    • The workout (FIT): frequency - intensity - duration
    • Cool down: 5-15 minutes - lowers the body temperature - vessels constrict
    • Personalize your workout: base exercise prescription on: general health - age - fitness status - musculoskeletal condition - body composition
  27. High Impact vs Low Impact
    High impact puts stress on joints
  28. Cardiorespiratory Fitness
    • A good measure of the heart's ability to pump oxygen-rich blood to the muscles
    • "Cardio" - heart
    • "Vascular" - blood vessels
    • "Respiratory" - lungs and ventilation
    • "Aerobic" - working with oxygen
    • Need for Cardiorespiratory endurance in daily living - remain independent - leisure activity more enjoyable with higher cardiorespiratory fitness
    • Ability to perform aerobic exercises for a prolonged period of time and is effective in promoting weight loss and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease
    • Cardiorespiratory endurance - considered by many to be the most important component of health related physical fitness
  29. Most valid measurement of Cardiorespiratory Fitness
    • VO2 max, maximal aerobic capacity
    • Maximal amount of oxygen the body can take in and use during exercise
  30. Cardiovascular System
    • Pulmonary Circuit - oxygen from the lungs
    • Systemic Circuit - oxygen to the body, nlood
    • 2 different types of blood vessels: arteries (arterioles, capillaries) - veins
    • Stroke volume
    • Cardiac output
  31. How do we get energy to exercise?
    Energy is the fuel needed to make the muscles move for activity; we get that energy from the breakdown of food: energy released from the food i used to make adenosine triphosphate ATP - muscles contract due to supply of ATP
  32. Body uses two "systems" in muscles to produce ATP
    • Anaerobic - without oxygen - short term, high intesity exercise [100 meter dash]
    • Aerobic - with oxygen (primary system for developing cardiorespiratory endurance) - longer duration [800 meter run]
    • Many activities use both energy systems
  33. What happens to the CRS with exercise and training?
    • Responses - changes that occur during and immediately after exercise
    • Adaptations - changes that you will see with regular exercise routine - resting heart decrease (heart is able to pump more blood per heartbeat)
  34. Body Composition
    • Endurance training produces a loss of body fat and healthier body composition
    • Nutrition with exercise is the only guarantee that body comp will change
  35. Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance
    • Regular physical activity -
    • Lower risk of cardio vascular disease
    • Reduce risk of type II diabetes
    • Lower blood pressure
    • Increase bone density
    • Psychological benefits
    • Extend activities of daily living
  36. Evaluation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness
    • VO2 max
    • 1.5 mile run test
    • 1 mile walk test
    • Cycle ergometer
    • Step test