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Why is there little discussion of the vikings even though they were the first Europeans to arrive in North America? 2 marks
There is little discussion about the vikings because they lack historiacl significance. They only stayed for 3 years and didn't have an impact on the people they came in contact with.
Exlain the doctrine of terra nullis. Identify 3 implications of this worldview held by Europeans. 3 marks
The doctrine of terra nullis meant that the European explorers believed that the land belonged to no one. One implication is that the Europeans believed that non-Europeans were inferior. Another implication is that Europeans believed that the land of other countries could be seized. A third implication is that the Europeans believed that non-Europeans would welcome and benefit from assimilation into European cultures.
Why was finding a Northwest Passage important after 1453? 2 marks
Europeans had been trading with Asia across an overland route that ran through Constantinople. Constantinople fell to Muslims which cut off all riches of Asia. Europeans were then forced to find an alternative route to Asia.
Explain the role of mercantilism in colonization. 2 marks
It convinced European countries that they should establish permanent settlements in North America so they can gain wealth by exporting more goods than imported.
Explain the role of competition in colonization. 2 marks
Countries competed with each other to colonize the most territory. Control and exploitation of resources was seen as a way to increase power and prestige.
Explain the role of the desire to spread Christianity in colonization. 2 marks
Religious groups thought it was their duty to spread Christian faith to unknown cultures. Religious converts prompted religious leaders to contribute to their governments exploration funds.
What were Champlain's reasons for establishing a colony at Kebec? 3 marks
Champlain established a colony in Kebec because of its advantageous location for trade, its fertile ground, and because it could be defended if under attack.
Describe the Company of 100 Associates. Why did it fail? 3 marks
- The company of 100 associates was a group of 100 investors that invested money to harvest the resources of Nouvelle-France. In return, they took on the tasks of establishing trade, settlement, and converting First Nations to Catholicism.
- It failed because of the constant warfare with the Haudenosaunee that were allied with the British. This prevented trade from being developed. The company was poorly monitored and there was little support from France for defense.
What was the Sovereign Council? Identify two reasons for the increasing independence of the Sovereign Council. 4 marks
- The Sovereign Council were key officials who ran Nouvelle-France for the king. They were appointed by the king and accountable for him.
- Members of the Sovereign Council started to be selected from the colonists. As France became involved in European wars, Nouvelle-France became more independent from France.
- The geographic distance was too far. Requests were sent before the St. Lawrence froze over but replies didn't reach Quebec until spring which required Nouvelle-France to take action on their own.
Explain the role of the intendant of the Sovereign Council. 1 mark
Responsible for administering the justice, policies, and finances of the colony.
Explain the role of the governor of the Sovereign Council. 1 mark
Controlled military matters and external policy.
Explain the role of the bishop of the Sovereign Council. 1 mark
Manages religious affairs which included charity, education, hospitals, and the spreading of Christianity in North America.
Who were the militia? What roles did they serve? 3 marks
The militia were a group of regular citizens to defend their colony. They were an effective fighting force because they had experience in the fur trade or from hunting. They also helped build roads, bridges, and community houses.
Why did the French expansion focus on river valleys? 1 mark
They focused on river valleys because rivers were the main routes of transportation as well as the source of furs. Controlling rivers controls movement and trade and also controls rivals and enemies more effectively.
Identify 3 ways the church played a significant role in the daily lives of Nouvelle-France colonists. 3 marks
- Colonists were members of the same church.
- Church performed many social functions.
- The church had a member, the bishop, on the Sovereign Council.
Explain how the seigneurial system provided social structure to Nouvelle-France? 4 marks
- All land belonged to the king.
- The king granted the use of the land to seigneur or lord.
- They, in turn, rented out the land to censitaires or habitants.
- Each member of this hierarchy had rights and responsibilities.
Identify 2 rights and 2 responsibilities for the seigneurs and the censitaires. 8 marks
- Received an annual tax from his farmers.
- Received annual rent.
- Swear loyalty and obedience to the king.
- Hold local court to settle arguments.
- Land to farm for the seigneur.
- The seigneur's protection.
- pay annual tax and rent to the seigneur.
- Clear and settle his land.
What problem led to the filles du roi? 1 mark
In 1663, there was only 1 women for every 6 men in the colony, keeping the population of the colony low.
From where were many of the young women recruited? 1 mark
Many of these women were recruited from orphanages.
What was the long range impact of this period of immigration? 1 mark
Many French Canadians can trace their lineage back to one of the les filles du roi. It helps explain perception of their place in Canada and reponse to many issues.
Who were the Acadians? What was the impact of the Treaty of Utrecht upon the Acadians? 2 marks
- The Acadians are early French immigrants of the colony Acadia (modern day Nova Scotia).
- The impact on the Acadians from the Treaty of Utrecht is that Acadia was handed over to the British and therefore had to switch their allegiance from French to the British.
Why was a second oath required in 1754? Describe the results of the Acadians refusal. 2 marks
- A second oath was required in 1754 because the governor of Nova Scotia, Charles Lawrence, didn't like the idea of Acadians being neutral.
- As a result of this refusal was that the Acadians were expelled from Nova Scotia and their homes and crops were destroyed.
Why did the British want the Ohio Valley? 1 mark
The British wanted this territory because the population in their 13 colonies was expanding and they hoped to develop land in the valley.
Explain how the fur trade led to conflict. 2 marks
Complication led to conflict as traditional alliances and territories were changed. The introduction of guns also made conflict more deadly which added to further tensions.
With the benefit of examples, show how both sides benefited from the fur trade. 2 marks
- Each group exchanged something they had a surplus of for something they valued.
- Europeans received: canoes and snowshoes, furs, moccasins.
- First Nations received: muskets, awls, fishooks, axes.
Explain the cultural impact of the population loss due to disease. 2 marks
by the 1630's half of the Wendat population had died from disease or wars with the Haudenosaunee over the fur trade.
Explain the negative impact of the fur trade upon First Nations 4 marks.
- communities were torn apart over the issue of fur trade and alcohol. fur trade increasingly favoured the Europeans therefore forcing First Nations to devote more time to it. This meant other tasks were neglected.
- ex) Since hunters were involved in the fur trade, it meant that sometimes there wouldn't be enough good supply for winter. This led to communities to become more dependent on the fur trade.