Art History Final Exam A

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  1. Early Middle Ages
    5th c. to 1050
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    Sutton Hoo Purse Cover, Anonymous, Early Middle Ages, 5th c. - 1050
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    Chi Rho Iota Page from Book of Kells, Anonymous, Early Middle Ages, 5th c. - 1050
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    Interior view of Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Anonymous, Early Middle Ages, 5th c. to 1050
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    Gero Crucifix, Anonymous, Early Middle Ages, 5th c. - 1050
  6. Romanesque
    c. 1050 - 1200
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    Santiago de Compostela, Anonymous, Romanesque, c. 1050 - 1200
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    Bayeux Tapestry, Anonymous, Romanesque, c. 1050 - 1200
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    Pisa Campanile, Bonanno Pisano, Romanesque, c. 1050 - 1200
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    San Giovanni Baptistry, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Romanesque, c. 1050 - 1200  

    • >In the heart of Florence. You were not a true Florentine unless you were.
    • >Baptized here Italian poet Dante and the Medici family were baptized here.
  11. Gothic
    • c. 1150 - 1400 
    • >Golden age of Cathedral architecture 
    • >Age of the emergence of cities as we know them, such as Paris
    • >More windows to allow more light to come inside
    • >Flying buttresses, stained glass windows, less
    • masonry but more support.
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    Cathedral of Notre Dame at Chartres, Anonymous, Gothic, c. 1150 - 1400

    • >1194 - fire damaged significant portion of church, but holy relic (cloth of Virgin Mary) remained unscathed, so they rebuilt.
    • >Early Gothic - pre-fire, right tower
    • >Mature Gothic - post-fire, left tower
    • >Basillica Floor plan
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    Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, Anonymous, Gothic, c. 1150 - 1400.

    • >Church was extensively damaged in 1790 French Revolution 
    • >Religious Figures misunderstood to be actual French monarchy 
    • >Extensively restored in the 1800's
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    Sainte-Chapelle, Anonymous, Gothic, c. 1150 - 1400

    • >Small sanctuary space, interior is like a
    • reliquary 
    • >King Louis IX brought back relics from the crusades (crown of thorns, piece of the cross, metal tip from lance, sponge of vinegar)
  15. Proto-Renaissance
    • c. 1250 - 1400
    • >Pertaining to sculpture and painting done by Italians.
    • >The term looks to the future rather than Late Gothic
    • >Style anticipates eventual Renaissance age with Classical influences and the "rebirth of civilization"
    • >Idea of humanism, still a Christian-dominated society, but more humanistic approach to religious story-telling.
    • >Rome becomes a wasteland when Papacy moves to Avignon, France (Great Western Schism)
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    Virgin and Child in Majesty, Duccio, Proto-Renaissance, c. 1250 - 1400

    • >From the Maesta Altarpiece.
    • >Altar pieces become huge in size.
    • >Remained on altar piece until 1570's. 
    • >Duccio signed painting on strip on chair right below Mary (lower center).
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    Virgin and Child Enthroned, Giotto, Proto-Renaissance, c. 1250 - 1400

    • >For church in Florence, showing full-bodied figures. 
    • Giotto was a master of depicting three-dimensionality on a flat surface.
    • >Mary is holding Jesus moreso than displaying him. 
    • >Giotto relied less on icon formula and moreso on an actual model, as well as painting illusionistic similar to ancient Roman frescos.
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    • The Lamentation, Giotto, Proto-Renaissance, c. 1250-1400
    • >Mary is coming down for final kiss
    • >Dead tree in back, different from living tree in "Lazarus" image
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    • The Raising of Lazarus, Giotto, Proto-Reinaissance, c. 1250-1400
    • >Anticipates Christ's own resurrection.
    • >Three-Dimentionality and volume is demonstrated.
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    • Birth of the Virgin, Pietro Lorenzetti, Proto-Renaissance, c. 1250-1400
    • >Most sophisticated representation of space >Men waiting in far left of a different room. >Altar piece.
  21. Early Flemish Renaissance
    • c. 1400 - 1500 Only impacts 2D art (paintings)
    • >Paintings become premier art form 
    • >Flanders (Belgium, Holland and France) becomes involved w/ international trade and becomes economically successful
    • >Art Patrons are still Christian merchants
    • >Increase of portrait images
    • >Important characteristic: disguised symbolismn
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    • Merode Altar Piece, Workshop of the Master of Flemalle, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500.
    • >Triptych owned by Marode family
    • >Made for middle-class families
    • >Main subject = the annunciationsFar left = donors honored to watch.
    • >Far right = Joseph in woodshop
    • >Center = Flemish scene
    • >Two books = new and old testaments >Disguised symbolism - (polished kettle = Mary's womb), (towel on rack = traditional jewish prayer shawl) (joseph making mouse traps = jesus is devil's mouse trap
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    Ghent Altarpiece, Jan and Hubert(?) van Eyck, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500 

    • >Polyptych, pronounced "kent"
    • >Hubert probably did the framework 
    • >Main subject = the adoration of the lamb (christ)
    • >Created for the church in the city of Ghent 
    • >St. John on the Right
    • >Mary on the Left 
    • >Adam and Eve on upper far left and right are remarkably naked and understand their nakedness --> through Jesus, one can find forgiveness from original sin
    • >Eve = Flemish ideal of beauty 
    • >Figures are life-sized, which would not have previously happened in Western art since ancient Roman days
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    Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife, Jan van Eyck, Early Flemish Renaissance

    • >Portrait commission for Arnolfini in 1434.
    • >Signed in center 
    • >Arnolfini = Italian business man 
    • >Witness needed for ceremony, so van Eyck is the witness 
    • >Very fashionable for 15th century-high forehead and bloated stomach 
    • >Bed chamber = St. Margaret, patron saint of childbirth 
    • >Whisk broom and crystal beads = purity
    • >Removed shoes = holy ground
    • >Dog = fidelity
    • >Red turbaned man = van Eyck 
    • >Fruits on chester drawer = citrus fruits, which were expensive imports that symbolize fertility
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    • Crucifixion with Mourning Virgin and St. John, Roger van der Weyden, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500 
    • >Unknown context. May have been doors for sculptural altarpiece. 
    • >There is a connection between two panels of diptych.
    • >1450 was jubilee year, pope decreed if you are came to St. Peter's that your sins would be more easily absolved
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    Portinari Altarpiece, Hugo van der Goes, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500 

    • >Triptych 
    • >Portinari family = Italian family 
    • >Closed = The Annunciation
    • >Sent to Florence and installed in hospital, 1st time artists in Florence saw oil paintings >Disguised symbolism 
    • >Bundle of wheat = Jesus' body 
    • >Decorated with bunches of grapes = blood >Flowers = iris (mary's sorrow), white blossoms, violets (humility)
    • >Tympanum = relief of harp = david (king)
    • >Watchful ox = St. Luke, traditional animal of christianity
    • >Distracted donkey = Judaism
    • >Shepherds = welcome, prayer, gaping in awe
    • >Distance = annunciation of shepherds.
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Art History Final Exam A
2014-05-02 18:10:00
Art History Final Exam

Art History Final Exam A
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