Art History Final Exam A

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Art History Final Exam A
2014-05-02 14:10:00
Art History Final Exam

Art History Final Exam A
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  1. Early Middle Ages
    5th c. to 1050
  2. Sutton Hoo Purse Cover, Anonymous, Early Middle Ages, 5th c. - 1050
  3. Chi Rho Iota Page from Book of Kells, Anonymous, Early Middle Ages, 5th c. - 1050
  4. Interior view of Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Anonymous, Early Middle Ages, 5th c. to 1050
  5. Gero Crucifix, Anonymous, Early Middle Ages, 5th c. - 1050
  6. Romanesque
    c. 1050 - 1200
  7. Santiago de Compostela, Anonymous, Romanesque, c. 1050 - 1200
  8. Bayeux Tapestry, Anonymous, Romanesque, c. 1050 - 1200
  9. Pisa Campanile, Bonanno Pisano, Romanesque, c. 1050 - 1200
  10. San Giovanni Baptistry, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Romanesque, c. 1050 - 1200  

    • >In the heart of Florence. You were not a true Florentine unless you were.
    • >Baptized here Italian poet Dante and the Medici family were baptized here.
  11. Gothic
    • c. 1150 - 1400 
    • >Golden age of Cathedral architecture 
    • >Age of the emergence of cities as we know them, such as Paris
    • >More windows to allow more light to come inside
    • >Flying buttresses, stained glass windows, less
    • masonry but more support.
  12. Cathedral of Notre Dame at Chartres, Anonymous, Gothic, c. 1150 - 1400

    • >1194 - fire damaged significant portion of church, but holy relic (cloth of Virgin Mary) remained unscathed, so they rebuilt.
    • >Early Gothic - pre-fire, right tower
    • >Mature Gothic - post-fire, left tower
    • >Basillica Floor plan
  13. Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, Anonymous, Gothic, c. 1150 - 1400.

    • >Church was extensively damaged in 1790 French Revolution 
    • >Religious Figures misunderstood to be actual French monarchy 
    • >Extensively restored in the 1800's
  14. Sainte-Chapelle, Anonymous, Gothic, c. 1150 - 1400

    • >Small sanctuary space, interior is like a
    • reliquary 
    • >King Louis IX brought back relics from the crusades (crown of thorns, piece of the cross, metal tip from lance, sponge of vinegar)
  15. Proto-Renaissance
    • c. 1250 - 1400
    • >Pertaining to sculpture and painting done by Italians.
    • >The term looks to the future rather than Late Gothic
    • >Style anticipates eventual Renaissance age with Classical influences and the "rebirth of civilization"
    • >Idea of humanism, still a Christian-dominated society, but more humanistic approach to religious story-telling.
    • >Rome becomes a wasteland when Papacy moves to Avignon, France (Great Western Schism)
  16. Virgin and Child in Majesty, Duccio, Proto-Renaissance, c. 1250 - 1400

    • >From the Maesta Altarpiece.
    • >Altar pieces become huge in size.
    • >Remained on altar piece until 1570's. 
    • >Duccio signed painting on strip on chair right below Mary (lower center).
  17. Virgin and Child Enthroned, Giotto, Proto-Renaissance, c. 1250 - 1400

    • >For church in Florence, showing full-bodied figures. 
    • Giotto was a master of depicting three-dimensionality on a flat surface.
    • >Mary is holding Jesus moreso than displaying him. 
    • >Giotto relied less on icon formula and moreso on an actual model, as well as painting illusionistic similar to ancient Roman frescos.
    • The Lamentation, Giotto, Proto-Renaissance, c. 1250-1400
    • >Mary is coming down for final kiss
    • >Dead tree in back, different from living tree in "Lazarus" image
    • The Raising of Lazarus, Giotto, Proto-Reinaissance, c. 1250-1400
    • >Anticipates Christ's own resurrection.
    • >Three-Dimentionality and volume is demonstrated.
    • Birth of the Virgin, Pietro Lorenzetti, Proto-Renaissance, c. 1250-1400
    • >Most sophisticated representation of space >Men waiting in far left of a different room. >Altar piece.
  18. Early Flemish Renaissance
    • c. 1400 - 1500 Only impacts 2D art (paintings)
    • >Paintings become premier art form 
    • >Flanders (Belgium, Holland and France) becomes involved w/ international trade and becomes economically successful
    • >Art Patrons are still Christian merchants
    • >Increase of portrait images
    • >Important characteristic: disguised symbolismn
    • Merode Altar Piece, Workshop of the Master of Flemalle, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500.
    • >Triptych owned by Marode family
    • >Made for middle-class families
    • >Main subject = the annunciationsFar left = donors honored to watch.
    • >Far right = Joseph in woodshop
    • >Center = Flemish scene
    • >Two books = new and old testaments >Disguised symbolism - (polished kettle = Mary's womb), (towel on rack = traditional jewish prayer shawl) (joseph making mouse traps = jesus is devil's mouse trap
  19. Ghent Altarpiece, Jan and Hubert(?) van Eyck, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500 

    • >Polyptych, pronounced "kent"
    • >Hubert probably did the framework 
    • >Main subject = the adoration of the lamb (christ)
    • >Created for the church in the city of Ghent 
    • >St. John on the Right
    • >Mary on the Left 
    • >Adam and Eve on upper far left and right are remarkably naked and understand their nakedness --> through Jesus, one can find forgiveness from original sin
    • >Eve = Flemish ideal of beauty 
    • >Figures are life-sized, which would not have previously happened in Western art since ancient Roman days
  20. Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife, Jan van Eyck, Early Flemish Renaissance

    • >Portrait commission for Arnolfini in 1434.
    • >Signed in center 
    • >Arnolfini = Italian business man 
    • >Witness needed for ceremony, so van Eyck is the witness 
    • >Very fashionable for 15th century-high forehead and bloated stomach 
    • >Bed chamber = St. Margaret, patron saint of childbirth 
    • >Whisk broom and crystal beads = purity
    • >Removed shoes = holy ground
    • >Dog = fidelity
    • >Red turbaned man = van Eyck 
    • >Fruits on chester drawer = citrus fruits, which were expensive imports that symbolize fertility
    • Crucifixion with Mourning Virgin and St. John, Roger van der Weyden, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500 
    • >Unknown context. May have been doors for sculptural altarpiece. 
    • >There is a connection between two panels of diptych.
    • >1450 was jubilee year, pope decreed if you are came to St. Peter's that your sins would be more easily absolved
  21. Portinari Altarpiece, Hugo van der Goes, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500 

    • >Triptych 
    • >Portinari family = Italian family 
    • >Closed = The Annunciation
    • >Sent to Florence and installed in hospital, 1st time artists in Florence saw oil paintings >Disguised symbolism 
    • >Bundle of wheat = Jesus' body 
    • >Decorated with bunches of grapes = blood >Flowers = iris (mary's sorrow), white blossoms, violets (humility)
    • >Tympanum = relief of harp = david (king)
    • >Watchful ox = St. Luke, traditional animal of christianity
    • >Distracted donkey = Judaism
    • >Shepherds = welcome, prayer, gaping in awe
    • >Distance = annunciation of shepherds.