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Early Middle Ages
5th c. to 1050
Sutton Hoo Purse Cover, Anonymous, Early Middle Ages, 5th c. - 1050
Chi Rho Iota Page from Book of Kells, Anonymous, Early Middle Ages, 5th c. - 1050
Interior view of Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Anonymous, Early Middle Ages, 5th c. to 1050
Gero Crucifix, Anonymous, Early Middle Ages, 5th c. - 1050
c. 1050 - 1200
Santiago de Compostela, Anonymous, Romanesque, c. 1050 - 1200
Bayeux Tapestry, Anonymous, Romanesque, c. 1050 - 1200
Pisa Campanile, Bonanno Pisano, Romanesque, c. 1050 - 1200
San Giovanni Baptistry,
Romanesque, c. 1050 - 1200
>In the heart of Florence. You were not a true Florentine unless you were.
- >Baptized here Italian poet Dante and the Medici family were baptized here.
- c. 1150 - 1400
- >Golden age of Cathedral architecture
- >Age of the emergence of cities as we know them, such as Paris
- >More windows to allow more light to come inside
- >Flying buttresses, stained glass windows, less
- masonry but more support.
Cathedral of Notre Dame at Chartres
, Anonymous, Gothic, c. 1150 - 1400
- >1194 - fire damaged significant portion of church, but holy relic (cloth of Virgin Mary) remained unscathed, so they rebuilt.
- >Early Gothic - pre-fire, right tower
- >Mature Gothic - post-fire, left tower
- >Basillica Floor plan
Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris
, Anonymous, Gothic, c. 1150 - 1400.
- >Church was extensively damaged in 1790 French Revolution
- >Religious Figures misunderstood to be actual French monarchy
- >Extensively restored in the 1800's
, Anonymous, Gothic, c. 1150 - 1400
- >Small sanctuary space, interior is like a
- >King Louis IX brought back relics from the crusades (crown of thorns, piece of the cross, metal tip from lance, sponge of vinegar)
- c. 1250 - 1400
- >Pertaining to sculpture and painting done by Italians.
- >The term looks to the future rather than Late Gothic
- >Style anticipates eventual Renaissance age with Classical influences and the "rebirth of civilization"
- >Idea of humanism, still a Christian-dominated society, but more humanistic approach to religious story-telling.
- >Rome becomes a wasteland when Papacy moves to Avignon, France (Great Western Schism)
Virgin and Child in Majesty
, Duccio, Proto-Renaissance, c. 1250 - 1400
- >From the Maesta Altarpiece.
- >Altar pieces become huge in size.
- >Remained on altar piece until 1570's.
- >Duccio signed painting on strip on chair right below Mary (lower center).
Virgin and Child Enthroned
, Giotto, Proto-Renaissance, c. 1250 - 1400
- >For church in Florence, showing full-bodied figures.
- Giotto was a master of depicting three-dimensionality on a flat surface.
- >Mary is holding Jesus moreso than displaying him.
- >Giotto relied less on icon formula and moreso on an actual model, as well as painting illusionistic similar to ancient Roman frescos.
- The Lamentation, Giotto, Proto-Renaissance, c. 1250-1400
- >Mary is coming down for final kiss
- >Dead tree in back, different from living tree in "Lazarus" image
- The Raising of Lazarus, Giotto, Proto-Reinaissance, c. 1250-1400
- >Anticipates Christ's own resurrection.
- >Three-Dimentionality and volume is demonstrated.
- Birth of the Virgin, Pietro Lorenzetti, Proto-Renaissance, c. 1250-1400
- >Most sophisticated representation of space >Men waiting in far left of a different room. >Altar piece.
Early Flemish Renaissance
- c. 1400 - 1500 Only impacts 2D art (paintings)
- >Paintings become premier art form
- >Flanders (Belgium, Holland and France) becomes involved w/ international trade and becomes economically successful
- >Art Patrons are still Christian merchants
- >Increase of portrait images
- >Important characteristic: disguised symbolismn
- Merode Altar Piece, Workshop of the Master of Flemalle, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500.
- >Triptych owned by Marode family
- >Made for middle-class families
- >Main subject = the annunciationsFar left = donors honored to watch.
- >Far right = Joseph in woodshop
- >Center = Flemish scene
- >Two books = new and old testaments >Disguised symbolism - (polished kettle = Mary's womb), (towel on rack = traditional jewish prayer shawl) (joseph making mouse traps = jesus is devil's mouse trap
, Jan and Hubert(?) van Eyck, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500
- >Polyptych, pronounced "kent"
- >Hubert probably did the framework
- >Main subject = the adoration of the lamb (christ)
- >Created for the church in the city of Ghent
- >St. John on the Right
- >Mary on the Left
- >Adam and Eve on upper far left and right are remarkably naked and understand their nakedness --> through Jesus, one can find forgiveness from original sin
- >Eve = Flemish ideal of beauty
- >Figures are life-sized, which would not have previously happened in Western art since ancient Roman days
Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife
, Jan van Eyck, Early Flemish Renaissance
- >Portrait commission for Arnolfini in 1434.
- >Signed in center
- >Arnolfini = Italian business man
- >Witness needed for ceremony, so van Eyck is the witness
- >Very fashionable for 15th century-high forehead and bloated stomach
- >Bed chamber = St. Margaret, patron saint of childbirth
- >Whisk broom and crystal beads = purity
- >Removed shoes = holy ground
- >Dog = fidelity
- >Red turbaned man = van Eyck
- >Fruits on chester drawer = citrus fruits, which were expensive imports that symbolize fertility
- Crucifixion with Mourning Virgin and St. John, Roger van der Weyden, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500
- >Unknown context. May have been doors for sculptural altarpiece.
- >There is a connection between two panels of diptych.
- >1450 was jubilee year, pope decreed if you are came to St. Peter's that your sins would be more easily absolved
, Hugo van der Goes, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500
- >Portinari family = Italian family
- >Closed = The Annunciation
- >Sent to Florence and installed in hospital, 1st time artists in Florence saw oil paintings >Disguised symbolism
- >Bundle of wheat = Jesus' body
- >Decorated with bunches of grapes = blood >Flowers = iris (mary's sorrow), white blossoms, violets (humility)
- >Tympanum = relief of harp = david (king)
- >Watchful ox = St. Luke, traditional animal of christianity
- >Distracted donkey = Judaism
- >Shepherds = welcome, prayer, gaping in awe
- >Distance = annunciation of shepherds.