Art History Final Exam B

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Art History Final Exam B
2014-05-03 15:33:03
Art History Final Exam

Art History Final Exam B
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    • Garden of Earthly Delights, Hieronymous Bosch, Early Flemish Renaissance, 1400 - 1500
    • >Tryptich Probably painted for private
    • chapel, but it is unsure.
    • >Continuous narrative from left to right
    • >Left = Adam and Eve introduced by God
    • >Center = Earth and it's
    • population explosion >Right = hell and the tortured souls
  1. Early Italian Renaissance
    • c. 1400 - 1495
    • Key city = Florence, Italy
    • Remarkable comeback after significant impact of the Black Death in Europe
  2. Sacrifice of Isaac, Ghiberti, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495

    • >Winner of competition panel for new set of Florentine Baptistry doors against Brunelleschi.
    • >Artists had to work in quatrafoil with subject of Sacrifice of Isaac for old testament relief panels and signs contract to do another set of doors from 1403 - 1423 
    • >More compositionally pleasing than Brunelleschi's piece and requires viewer to put a little more thought into it.
  3. St. George, Donatello, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495

    • >Armorors had swordsmith guild
    • >St. George slayed the dragon - relief - panels show key subjects of his life, slayed dragon with sword (good vs. evil).
  4. Feast of Herod, Donatello, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495

    • >City of Siena wants new Baptismal font where baptismal holy water is held. 
    • >Donatello learned bronze casting from Ghiberti
    • >Herod killed brother, married wife, St. John spoke against the marriage.
    • >Salimaid (step-daughter) wanted St. John's head on platter in order to "pay" for her dancing. 
    • >1st use of linear one-point perspective to give 3D effect (learned from Brunelleschi)
    • >Orthogonal
  5. Gates of Paradise, Ghiberti, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495

    • >East doors of Baptistry of San Giovanni
    • >Scenes from Old Testament 
    • >Creation --> Meeting of Solomon and Shiba >Panel: younger jacob and Esau 
    • >Classical architectural 
    • >Ghiberti includes self-portraits in his doors.
  6. David, Donatello, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495 

    • >Commissioned by private patrons. 
    • >Standing on Goliath's head 
    • >Cast bronze, 5' 2.5" 
    • >Mentioned in inner courtyard in Medici family home, surrounded by potted lemon trees. >Medici's were wealthy political rulers and merchants. 
    • >Unprecedented first free-standing bronze sculpture made since the ancient past. >Contrapposto - classical Greeks, nude.
    • >Strong military imagery 
    • >David becomes symbol of power in Florence, overcoming enemies (Milan) 
    • >Goliath's helmet is associated with Milanese >Feminine quality --> adolescent who has yet to become a man.
    • >Strong homoerotic quality: stroking Goliath's beard and facial hair with his foot.
  7. Mary Magdalen, Donatello, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495

    • >After returning to Florence, he was commissioned for the San Giovanni Baptistry.
    • >Mary Magdalen was one of Jesus' followers and a former prostitute 
    • >Used white poplar wood that was painted
  8. Dome of Florence Cathedral, Brunelleschi, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495

    • >Familiar with the Pantheon.
    • >Cathedral of Florence calls for architect to design and build the biggest dome on earth.
    • >The lower part of the dome is the basic foundation of whole support system. 
    • >Double-shelled dome: one dome inside another dome.
  9. Foundling Hospital, Brunelleschi, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495

    • >Paid for by silk manufacturers and goldsmith guilt.
    • >Felt need that orphans should be cared for and could be dropped off anonymously.
    • >Rather than Gothic vertical style, the emphasis has become horizontal.
    • >Corinthian style columns.
    • >Pendentive triangular units that come out of square help support structure
  10. San Lorenzo, Brunelleschi, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495 

    • >Entablature, pendentives
    • >Limited people could use library due to illiteracy 
    • >Donatello buried in this church
    • >Natural clear white light and not stained glass windows
    • >Flat ceiling with coffers (Ancient Roman) >Large arch frames where alter is located. >Reacting to early Christian church architecture and Gothic architecture.
  11. Trinity with Virgin, St. John the Evangelist, and Donors, Masaccio, Early Italian Renaissance, 1400 - 1495

    • >Funeral grave piece
    • >Subject is unknown, perhaps a Jesus sculpture.
    • >Mary gesturing towards cross, St. John clasping hands and God behind, White collar = holy spirit.
    • >Creates Illusion of side chapel using linear one point perspective 
    • >Orthoganals
  12. The Tribute Money, Masaccio, Early Italian Renaissance, c. 1400 - 1495

    • >In-frequently represented subject, not a major incident in St. Peter's life 
    • >Roman tax collector comes for tax from Jesus and disciples, Jesus instructs Peter (a fisherman) to go pull a coin from the mouth of a fish. 
    • >Contrapposto
  13. St. Lucy Altarpiece, Veneziano, Early Italian Renaissance, c. 1400 - 1495

    • >Madonna and Child flanked by Saints (St. John and St. Lucy)
    • >Sacra conversazione
  14. Battle of the Nudes, delPallaiuolo, Early Italian Renaissance, c. 1400 - 1495

    • >Battle scene, city of Florence
    • >3 panels, Florence won.
    • >Documenting real history decoratively 
    • >Ended up in Medici's home
    • >No middle distance, only fore and background
  15. Birth of Venus, Botticelli, Early Italian Renaissance, c. 1400 - 1495
  16. High Renaissance
    • c. 1495 - 1520  
    • Revival of Classical influences and raised the bar for art 
    • Nudes
    • Contropposto
    • Heroic physique
    • Youthful figures
    • Architecture (columns and entablatures)
  17. The Last Supper, Da Vinci, High Renaissance, c. 1495 - 1520

    • >Linear one point perspective 
    • >Oil Painting 
    • >Judas is calm and clutching his money bag
  18. Mona Lisa, Da Vinci, High Renaissance, c. 1495 - 1520

    • >Lisa Gherardini, married to Francesco del Giocondo who was a wealthy silk merchant.
    • Giocondo means "cheery" or "joyful"
  19. Pieta, Michelangelo, High Renaissance, c. 1495 - 1520

    • >Marble, commissioned by cardinal for St. Peter's 
    • >Example of Stoicism 
    • >Mary is acknowledging that this is God's will.
  20. David, Michelangelo, High Renaissance, c. 1495 - 1520

    • >Colossal, meant to be on roof of church
    • >Contropposto
    • >David is looking off into distance, overseeing Florence
  21. Moses, Michelangelo, High Renaissance, c. 1495 - 1520

    • >Holding 10 Commandments
    • >Looking off to side at Israelites worshipping false God and playing with his beard 
    • >Moment before destroying the tablets
    • >Horns to show that Jews descended from the devil, a common way to portray Jews.
  22. Madonna of the Gold Finch, Raphael, High Renaissance, c. 1495 - 1520

    • >Placed outside, contemporary Church and displays intimate moment 
    • >Other baby is John the Baptist while Mary reads the New Testament
  23. School of Athens, Raphael, High Renaissance, c. 1495 - 1520

    • >Collection of Greek philosophers
    • >trompe l'oeil