ANT human origins exam 3

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  1. H. Heidelbergensis
    key fossil sites
    • Africa
    • Bodo d' Ar, Ethiopia; 600 kya
    • ----thick cranial vault (skull), keeling 1250cc
    • ---assoc with acheulean tools
    • Broken hill mine, Kabwe, Zimbia; 125 kya
    • -----heavy brow, rounded cranium, 1280 cc, prognathic face
    • ----many cavities sugg, change in diet
    • ---indiviuals found with injuries that show they continue to live on->group support
  2. H. Heidelbergensis key fossil sites
    • Petralona, Greece 160-240 kya
    • -- double arched brow, broad nasal opening, thick cranial bones
  3. H. Heidelbergensis key fossil sites
    • Steinheim, Germany, 250 kya
    • - flat face (canine fossa/ deep root tooth), suprainiac fossa (flat under bun)(neandertal-like), 1100cc
  4. H. Heidelbergensis key fossil sites
    • Arago, France, 400 kya
    • - 23 individuals, heavy brow, no keeling, 1166cc
    • -argo xx1: 1166cc, thick brow, post orbital constriction(pinch by ears), no keel, assoc. with acheulean tools
  5. H. Heidelbergensis key fossil sites
    • Europe
    • 1.Atapuerca, spain-Gran Dolina, 900 kya (aka. h. antecessor)
    • --juvenile, small brain (1000cc), double arched brow, large teeth
    • 2. sima de los huesos, 300+ kya
    • --small brain (1125cc), projecting mid-face (neandertal-like)
    • -32 individuals of all ages
  6. H. Heidelbergensis key fossil sites
    • Asia
    • Dali, china; 200 kya
    • ---thick cranial vault, keeling, flat face, 1120cc

  7. h. heidelbergensis
    • -retains cranial robusticity - seen in h.erectus
    • -higher, more rounder cranium and a large brain than h. erectus (1200cc)
    • -mosaic of traits (e.g keeling(sagittal keeling: h. erectus), canine fossa)
  8. H. heidelbergensis
    Technology, hunting, fire use, mortuary practices
    • technology
    • Acheulean and wooden tools
    • hunting
    • -Schoningen, Germany- wood spears, flake tools and butchered horses
    • -boxgrove, England- hand axes, butchered rhinos and horse scapula with puncture wound
    • fire use
    • Terra amata, france
    • mortuary practices
    • -Bodo- cut marks on face
    • -Atapuerca, spain- sima de los huesos, cut marks on gran dolina materials
    • -steinheim enlarged foramen magnum for brain extraction

  9. Neanderthals fossil site
    Iraq, Israel, uzbekistan
    • Shanidar, Iraq 60 kya
    • - 9 individuals, group burial

    • Mt. carmel, Israel
    • - amud, slender brow, incipient chin, large mastoid
    • - kebara 60kya and tabun 110 kya

    • Teshik- tash, uzbekistan
    • - 9 yr old boy, eastern most distribution
  10. Shanidar 1
    • Neanderthal
    • 40 year old male
    • healed fractures
    • thought to be blind because of damage to optic nerve
    • withered arm
  11. Neanderthals fossil site
    • La chapelle-aux-saints, france 50 kya
    • - arthritic male, "brutish, bent kneed, and not fully erect"

    • la ferrassie, france ~70 kya
    • - 6 graves "classic Neanderthals" 

    • St. Cesaire, France; 36 kya
    • - Gracile skull, narrow nasal opening, incipient chin
  12. Neanderthals
    fossil site
    • Krapina, Croatia 130 kya
    • - 80 individuals, animal bines and tools, intermediate morphology (individuals more lightly built)
  13. Classic neanderthal
    • receding forehead
    • long, low vault
    • prominent, double arched brow ridge
    • projecting midface
    • backward swept cheek bones
    • weakly developed chin
  14. H. Neanderthals
    Apomorphic (unique ft)
    • large double arched brow ridge
    • projecting mid face (retro molar space)
    • suprainiac fossa(flat under bun)
    • occipital bun
    • large cranial capacity, avg. ~1520 (larger than modern humans)
  15. h. Neanderthals
    Symplesiomorphic (ancestral ft)
    • small mastoid process
    • flat robust skull with a low forehead
    • mandible lacks chin
  16. Neanderthals
    • -long, low cranial vault and large brain (1520cc)
    • - occipital bun and suprainiac fossa (elliptic depression on occiput--flat back head)
    • -robust double arched supraorbital torus
    • - Taurodont molars (fused roots) and shovel shaped incisors- designed for heavy wear
    • -robust post cranial skeleton (increased musculature), barrel-shaped chest and shorter distal elements (cold adapted body type)
  17. Neanderthals
    • Technology
    • - Mousterian tool industry (levallois tech) and hafted tools
    • - teeth as tools- heavy wear on front teeth
    • - chattelperonian tool industry (aft 40 kya)
    • ----saint cesaire and arcy-sur-cure, france
    • hunting and fire use
    • -Kebara- prime adult gazelle and deer, many burned bones, midden
    • -high rates of tramatic injuries, esp. head and neck

    • mortuary practices
    • -post-mortem processing- e.g kapina (broken bones, cut marks, and burning)
    • -burial and grave goods- e.g shanidar (flint tools), teshik-tash (ibex horns)
    • rituals/ symbolic behavior
    • -little or no art (arcy-sur-cure caves in france)

  18. fossil sites
    • Europe
    • 1. Cro-Magnon, france 30kya-fully modern anatomy
    • 2. abrigo do lagar velho, Portugal 24.5 kya
    • - lapedo child, 4 yrs old, pierced shell necklace and red ochre, mosaic morphology (admixture)
  19. h. ss fossil site
    • Asia
    • 1. mt. carmel, Israel : qafzeh  and skhul ~90kya
    • - reduced brow, incipient chin

    • 2.Dali, china 200 kya
    • - also classified as h. heidelbergensis
  20. H. sapiens sapiens
    fossil sites
    • Africa
    • 1.omo, Kabish, Ethiopia 198 kya
    • -omo 1 (high brow and chin) is > modern than omo 2 (occipital torus)

    • 2. Herto, middle awash, Ethiopia 160 kya
    • - high cranium, moderate brow, distinct canine fossa, 1450 cc
    • 3. Klasies river mouth, south Africa 90 kya
    • - presence of chin variable
    • -use of aquatic resources
    • -hearth

  21. H. sapiens sapiens
    • -forehead is rounded and vertical
    • -canine fossa (deep rooted teeth)
    • -pyramidal mastoid process
    • - generally gracile jaw and teeth and a distinct chin
    • -mean cranial capacity ca. 1400cc
    • - limb bones are relatively slender
  22. h. sapiens sapiens
    MSA tools before ~40 kya (e.g skhul and qafzeh)

    • the human revolution
    • -greater use of aquatic resources
    • -more varieties of stone tools (microliths and blades)
    • - use of bone, antler and ivory to make tools
    • -stone tool materials transported over long distances
    • -burials more complex with grave goods
    • -artwork common
  23. oldowan
    • oldowan
    • earliest evidence from h. habilis; disc in olduvai gorge, Tanzania- stone cores with flakes removed from part of the surface, edges made sharp

    • acheulean
    • disc in France; stone hand axe; pear shaped; used for skinning, digging, butchery, and cutting wood and plants. tools are found far and wide with a production rate that is longer than any other tool

    • mousterian
    • flint tools, assoc with neadtherals. mid paleolithic, disc in France

    aurignacian- made with push blade tech. upper paleolithic, assoc with modern humans, disc in Europe. created blades not flakes, carved bones.
  24. multiregional ?
    • regional contiguiety??
    • humans have evolved in multiple regions
    • "we all been on species since the beginning"
  25. replacement or African eve hyp??
    when moderns evolved in Africa they moved and replaced older hominins
  26. assimulation
    small pop. assimulated to large pop
    canine falsa
    • canine falsa
    • depression where canines are pressed down under cheek bones
  28. H. Neanderthals
    retro molar space
    • retro molar space
    • space behind molars
    • -no chin
    • -no forehead
  29. Shanidar
    teeth as tools
    • wear in teeth (none close together)
    • hides? skins?
  30. 3 kinds of data
    • morphology- mosaic morphology
    • archaeology- Neanderthal art and upper paleolithic technology
    • genetics- some admixtures
  31. H. heidelbergensis
    ancestral to Neanderthals
  32. h. antcessor
    splits from Neanderthals and early h. ss
  33. Neanderthal life expectancy
  34. Neanderthals hunting type
    close range
  35. Neanderthal tools technique
    • -used precise strikes to make tools (unique)
    • - pitch extraction; used as glue to hold spear head to shaft.
  36. neaderthals and interbreed?
    • 1-4% similar
    • Neaderthals genetically close to Europeans and asians
    • hybrids in MH pop and conti breeding that's why neaderthal genes continues to be seen in our genome
  37. h. heidelbergensis
    Primitive and derived traits
    • primitive
    • prognathic face
    • thick cranial bones
    • large brow ridge
    • mandible lacks chin
    • derived
    • larger brain than h. erectus
    • higher rounder cranium than h. erectus
    • reduced tooth size
  38. H. floresiensis
    • Disc. 2004
    • 18 kya
    • 3ft tall
    • 417 cc
    • no chin
    • prominent brow
    • femur with long neck
    • small teeth
    • narrow nose
    • thin vault
  39. Neanderthal post cranial skeleton
    • robust post cranial skeleton (increased musculature)
    • large joint surface areas
    • barrel shaped chest
    • short distal elements
    • longer superior pubic ramus
    • -->larger birth cannel
  40. Denisovan
    • Altai mt, siberia
    • one pinky bone
    • 2 robust molars
    • additional toe bone found with neaderthal DNA
    • green stone bracelet found

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ANT human origins exam 3
2014-05-06 00:47:35
human origins

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