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1996 = Wassenaar Arrangement - terrorist countries.
Chosen cipherattacks -
- Intruder must capture large portion of cyphertext
- chose which parts are to be decrypted
- translation process is analyzed to identify secret key
How many symmetric keys are required? Formula
web of trust between users, users can determine how much they trust one another.
IPSec Provides ...
Integrity, confidentiality, and System authentication. NOT user authentication.
- shift in alphabet - key is # of shifts
IPSec - ESP, AH
- ESP = confidentiality, message integrity, and system authentication
- AH = message integrity, and system authentication
128 bit algorith - accepted as DES - key size went from 128 to 64 and renamed DES
standard for digital certificates
Concealment cipher -
disguise messages within the text of a body or message, using every other word to form a message
another word for key - provides secrecy
Diffie Hillman Algorithm function?
Performs Key exchange
Block ciphers vs. Stream ciphers
- Block ciphers - work better in applications - they work with blocks of data
- Stream ciphers - work better in hardware - work with bits of data
Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) ? =
Does not perform message encryption or key exchange - the DSS dictates that SHA-1 or DSA are to be used for digital signatures
- Asymmectric, (public key algorithm),
- Used for digital signatures,
- key exchange
- calculates discrete logarithms in a finite field.
A good one-way message hashing function ...
creates a message digest from the whole message
Link Encryption -
encrypting header information - ect.
True weakness of DES ...
- key size
- One Time Pad
- hashing algorithm developed by NASA
- improves upon RC5
- larger hash value of bits .. larger message digest .. more resistent to birthday attacks
Symmetric algorithms are faster becuase ...
they use substitution and transposition
Confusion is carried out by ...
Diffustion is carried out by ...
Confusion is carried out by substitution
Diffustion is carried out by transposition
Key clustering -
One key is used to encrypt two different messages and they both end up with the same cyphertext.
- 128 bit hash algorithm
AES - encryption algorithm?
Purpose of public key
- authenticate private key
zero knowledge proof -
you can prove you have a key without sharing private key - don't share too much information
algorithm for DES (standard) - 16 rounds and 8 parity bits - 56 bit true key size
requires PKI - it performs authentication by using certificate authorities and certificates
HTTPS vs S-HTTP
- HTTPS - used to encrypt a channel
- S-HTTP - used to encrypted individual messages
- Access to ciphertext and algorithm source
key management protocols that can be used by IPSec - defacto IKE - internet key exchange - NETWORK LAYER