Fruit Classification

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Fruit Classification
2014-05-02 22:17:29
Plant Kingdom
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  1. simple fruit
    fruits which develop from a single (simple or compound) pistil, and which consist of a single matured ovary or an ovary plus other flower parts
  2. fleshy fruit
    Those in whcih a part or all of the pericarp and any accessory structures are fleshy at maturity
  3. dry fruit
    those in which the pericarp and associated structures becomes more or less dry when mature
  4. Dehiscent ruits
    those which split open at maturity
  5. Indehiscent fruits
    those which do not split open at maturity; all one sceeded
  6. Complex fruits
    fruits which develop from more than one pistil
  7. pericarp
    fruit wall; usually composed of three laters

    • exocarp: outermost layer of the pericarp
    • mesocarp: Middle
    • endocarp: innermost later
  8. Simple pistil
    composed of a singlel carpel
  9. compound pistil
    composed of two or more carpels fused together to form one pistil
  10. Explain Ephedra (a Gnetophyte) female plants
    has two primary cones, which have secondary cones

    only the secondary cone at the top will produce an ovule; all the rest are sterile (may be for protection)' the other secondary cones are sterile

    pollination droplet at top of micropylar tube
  11. Explain Ephedra (Gnetophytes) male plants
    Not as many segments as female cones

    two primary male cones with secondary male cones

    has microsporangia

    pollen has the same basic structure as the other ones
  12. Explain Gnetum male cones
    primary male cones with leaves

    several leaves with two long primary male cones

    one secondary male cone: aborted ovule, microsporangia, and bract

    twig with seeds
  13. Welwitschia mirabilis has how many leaves?

    Explain it.
    two (plant has only two)

    Plants are unisexual and cones are borne near the growing base of the long, leathery leaves

    • microsporangia¬†
    • aborted ovule
    • bracts
    • secondary cones
  14. Ginkgo biloba plant

    - Explain cone.

    - Explain pollen

    - Each section of cone

    - Long shoots with short shoots
    • - really loose cone; very soft and transient
    • - when it is released, it has four cells (2 prothalial, tube cells, generative cell)
    • - one section of cone each produces two microsporangia (inside pollen is forming)
    • - cone scales look like leaves
    • - spur shoots
  15. Ginkgo seeds
    • female gametophyte (endosperm inside)
    • embryo at one end
    • three integuments (inner, middle, and outer)
  16. Explain the Ginkgo reproductive structure.
    looks leaflike; may be all that's left of the megasporophyll; two ovules up top
  17. Parts of a Flower
    • Stamen (anther, connective, filament) and pollen inside
    • pistil (stigma style, ovary, ovule)
    • petal
    • sepa
    • receptacle
    • peduncle
  18. Explain the three insertions of a flower.
    hypogynous: superior ovary (fusion of the stamen, sepal, and petal occurs below the peduncle)

    perigynous flower: superior ovary (has floral cup or tube, which has the bottom of the stamen, sepal, and peal; they are free of the ovary)

    epigynous flower: inferior ovary (they get fused to wall of ovary above the ovary; the ovary is said to be below the fusion of the three)
  19. Main Trends in Floral Evolution

    - number of parts
    - number of appendages
    - length of receptacle
    - fusion
    - ovary position
    - symmetry
    • many, indefinite
    • four (sepals, petals, stamens, pistils)
    • long
    • parts free
    • superior
    • radial
  20. Main Trends in Floral Evolution

    - number of parts
    - number of appendages
    - length of receptacle
    - fusion
    - ovary position
    - symmetry
    • few, definite in number
    • 3,2 or 1
    • short
    • parts fused
    • inferior
    • bilateral
  21. Most advanced flower families
    • monocots: orchid family
    • eudicot: composites
  22. Pollen grain development in angiosperms
    - goes through __ and __.

    Pollen tube..
    microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis

    begins with stamen, anther and filament. Inside the anther are connective and vascular tissue and a tapetum, which produces the micrsporocyte-->

    meiosis--> tetrad of microspores, each with a generative cell and tube cell, called the pollen grain--> germination--> mature male gametophyte with pollen tube, gametes, and tube nucleus

    pollen tube grows downward to ovule and ovary
  23. In double fertilization of the embryo, what do the sperm fuse with?
    one fuses with the egg nucleus, the other with the polar body to form the endosperm, which is 3n
  24. Post-fertilizaton developments in angiosperms
    zygote develops from embryo and the pericarp (exo, meso, and endo) are formed with the seed inside (fruit)--> seed germination (young sporophyte emerging)
  25. Bean--seed structure, germination , and development of hte seedling (__0

    seed coat, plumule, hypoctoyl-radicle axis, cotyledon

    • primary root develops
    • first true leaves develop
    • cotyledon withers and roots are long as well as leaves