Chapter 1

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Chapter 1
2014-05-03 20:41:12
Chapter 1
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  1. The "I-knew-it-all-along" phenomenon.
    Hindsight Bias
  2. Our tendency to think we know more than we actually know.
  3. Composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning) and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong).
    Scientific attitude
  4. People who do not accept arguments and conclusions blindly.
    Critical thinking
  5. A self-correcting process for asking questions and observing nature's answers.
    Scientific method
  6. An explanation that integrates principles, organizes observations, and implies clear predictions (or hypotheses) of behavior or events.
  7. A testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, which enables us to accept, reject or revise the theory.
  8. A statement of the procedures (operations) used to carefully define research variables so that anyone can replicate the study.
    Operational Definition
  9. A technique in which one person (or organism) is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles.
    Case Study
  10. A technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people.
  11. When each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample.
    Random Sampling
  12. Involves observing and recording behavior of people/animals in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
    Naturalistic Observation
  13. When one variable, trait, or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate.
  14. The perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists.
    Illusory Correlation
  15. The backbone of psychology research, enable researchers to isolate causes and their effects, and thus to begin to explain behavior.
  16. A factor manipulated by the experimenter.
    Independent Variable
  17. A factor that may change in response to an independent variable.
    Dependent Variable
  18. Involves the same process as random sampling but it involves assigning people by chance to the experimental condition/group and the control condition/group.
    Random Assignment
  19. Participants are uninformed of what treatment, if any, they are receiving.
    Single-blind Procedure
  20. Both research participants and staff are ignorant about whether participants have received the treatment or placebo.
    Double-blind Procedure
  21. When experimental results are caused by expectations alone.
    Placebo Effect
  22. Statistical procedures analyze and interpret data, allowing us to see what the unaided eye misses.
    Descriptive Statistics
  23. A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean.
    Standard Deviation
  24. A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data.
    Normal Distribution
  25. THe tendency for extremes of unusual scores or events to regress toward the average.
    Regression Toward the Mean