Science

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Author:
MichKatie
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272957
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Science
Updated:
2014-05-04 07:09:54
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Biology2
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Science,Biology,2
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Science Biology 2
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  1. What happens to the extra protein in your diet?
    Gets turned into urea
  2. What is CON2H2?
    Urea
  3. What are proteins?
    Biological polymers
  4. What are proteins used for in the human body?
    • Structure
    • Hormones
    • Enzymes
  5. Name three things proteins make in structure.
    • Hair
    • Nails
    • Muscle
  6. What are proteins important for?
    Your immune system
  7. How many amino acids are there?
    20
  8. What order can they be linked in?
    any
  9. Explain why there are so many different kinds of protein molecules.
    There are 20 amino acids that  can  be linked in any order creating different protein molecules
  10. What happens to the longest proteins?
    They fold up to make 3D structures with a specific shape
  11. Explain how animals get proteins fro different processes.
    They start as amino acids and animals get these from eating plants and other animals., Digestion breaks these up into amino acids. These are then taken out through the small intestine into the blood. Any extra that is left after all the proteins are made that are needed get turned into urea.
  12. What is an enzyme?(3)
    • Biological catalyst
    • Protein molecules
    • reusable
  13. When do chemical reactions take place?
    When particles collide
  14. What is activation energy?
    the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
  15. What do enzymes do?
    Lower activation energy so the reaction can proceed at a greater rate
  16. What are substrates?
    The chemicals that the enzymes are reacting with.
  17. What is an anabolic enzyme?
    An enzyme that builds up molecules
  18. What is a catabolic enzyme?
    An enzyme that breaks down molecules
  19. How are proteins digested?
    Broken down into amino acids and then remade into different chains to be useful.
  20. What is there for every protein?
    One to break it down
  21. What different shapes do proteins make?
    • Sheets
    • Balls etc.
    • e.g. Antibodies make a long protein which is then folded to make a 3D structure with a specific shape
  22. What temperature do enzymes work best at?
    40oC
  23. What happens to enzymes at lower temperatures?
    There is less activation energy
  24. What happens to enzymes at high temperatures?
    They become denatured
  25. What is a catalyst?
    Special chemicals that speed up reactions
  26. Describe this
    • The substrate fits into the active site
    • substrate splits into products which leave the active site
    • Enzyme is ready to use again
  27. Name 1 and 2.
    • 1 substrate
    • 2 active site
  28. What is an active site?
    The special site in the structure of an enzyme where the substrate binds
  29. Name two things that affect the activity of an enzyme.
    • Temperature
    • pH
  30. What happens when an enzyme becomes denatured?
    Changes the shape of the active site
  31. Look in revision guide about digestive organs!!!!!!!
    :)
  32. What does the small intestine do?
    Absorbs food molecules into the bloodstream
  33. What does the Liver do?
    Produces bile which is used to break down large fat globules into smaller droplets
  34. What does the Stomach do?
    Contains protease enzyme and also hydrochloric acid to kill bacteria
  35. What does the salivary gland do?
    produces saliva which contains the enzyme carbohydras
  36. What does the pancreas do?
    Produces carbohydras, lipase and protease enzymes and release them into the small intestine
  37. What does the rectum do?
    where the faeces is stored
  38. What does the mouth do?
    food is chewed up by the teeth and swallowed
  39. What does the oesophagus do?
    Tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
  40. What does the anus do?
    Faeces leaves the body here
  41. What does the large intestine do?
    water from waste food is absorbed
  42. What does the gall bladder do?
    stores bile
  43. What does carbohydras convert?
    starch to sugar
  44. What does protease convert?
    proteins to amino acids
  45. What does lipase convert?
    fats to glycerol and fatty acids
  46. Where is carbohydrase made?
    Salivary gland and pancreas
  47. Where is proteases  made?
    pancreas and stomach
  48. Where is lipase made?
    pancreas
  49. Name two things enzymes are used for at home.
    • Washing powder
    • dishwasher powder
  50. What is protease used for in industry?
    manufacture of baby food
  51. What is carbohydrase used for in industry?
    Converting starch to glucose
  52. What is isomerase for in industry?
    Converts glucose to fructose syrup for slimming foods
  53. Three advantages of biological washing powder.
    • Helps remove greasy dirt
    • Enzymes break down stains
    • Work well at relatively low temperature so save energy
  54. What is the disadvantage of biological washing powder?
    can cause skin problems as it breaks  down keratin in the skin
  55. What is anaerobic respiration?
    respiration without the presence of oxygen
  56. What is aerobic respiration?
    respiration with oxygen
  57. What is C6H12O6+6O2=6CO2+6H2O?
    aerobic respiration
  58. What are the waste produces of respiration?
    • CO2
    • Lactic acid
  59. Where does anaerobic respiration take place?
    mitochondria
  60. Give a similarity between anaerobic and aerobic respiration.
    They both produce energy
  61. How are substances moved in and out a cell?
    Active transport
  62. What is oxygen debt?
    The amount of oxygen needed to oxidise lactic acid into carbon dioxide and water and explains why we carry on to breath deeply after exercise
  63. Name the five processes in mitosis.
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
    • Cytokinesis
  64. What happens at prophase?
    1. Prophase - The long and thread-like chromatids during the interphase start to coil at this stage and become visible under a compound microscope as individual chromosomes.The membrane of the nucleus dissolves and the spindle fibers are formed. Centrioles migrate at opposite poles of the cell.
  65. What happens at Metaphase?
    2. Metaphase - Chromosomes move and align themselves at the center of the cell called metaphase plate. Spindle fibers connect each chromosome on its centromere to the centrioles located at opposite places.
  66. What happens at anaphase?
    3. Anaphase - The sister chromatids of each chromosome divide and move toward opposite poles due to the short ening of the spindle fibers.
  67. What happens at telophase?
    4. Telophase - The chromatids(now called chromosomes) are located on opposite poles. Nuclear membrane forms around the chromosomes which start to uncoil. The spindle fibers dissolve and disappear
  68. What happens at cytokinesis?
    the nucleus splits and organelles appear
  69. Name the processes in meiosis.
    • Prophase 1
    • Metaphase 1
    • Anaphase 1
    • Telophase1
    • Metaphase 2
    • Telophase 2
  70. What happens in prophase 1?
    Prophase I - Homologus chromosomes pair up (synapsis) and form a tetrad. Sometimes non-sister chromatids exchange genetic information during the process of crossing over.
  71. What happens in metaphase 1?
    Metaphase I- Tetrads line up at the centre of the cell.
  72. What happens at anaphase 1?
    Anaphase I - Homologous pairs are split up.
  73. What happens at telophase 1?
    Telophase I/Cytokinesis - Two daughter cells form that have half the chromosome number of the parent cell but each chromosome consists of a pair of sister chromatids.
  74. What is interkinesis
    Interkinesis - break period Meiosis II:
  75. What happens at prophase 2?
    Prophase II - A new spindle forms
  76. What happens at metaphase 2?
    Metaphase II- Each chromosome lines up at the middle of the cell.
  77. What happens at anaphase 2?
    Anaphase II - The sister chromatids are separated and move to opposite ends of the cell.
  78. What happens at telophase 2?
    Telophase II - Two new nuclei are formed in each cell. Each nucleus contains a haploid (n) number of chromosomes.
  79. What happens at cytokinesis?
    Cytokinesis- End result of meiosis is 4 haploid daughter cells.

  80. What was the earth like 4.8 billion years ago?


    The atmosphere was 98% CO2 and the air temperature was a lot higher than now

  81. What was the earth like 3.5billion years ago?


    Simple celled organisms with no nucleus formed

  82. What was the earth like 3 billion years ago?


    Algae photosynthesised changing the atmosphere

  83. What was the earth like 2.8 billion years ago?


    The earth's crust hardened and the oldest rocks were formed.

  84. What was the earth like 65 million years ago?

    Dinosaurs became extinct this is thought to be because of an asteroid hit the earth

  85. What was the earth like 1.5 billion years ago?


    Eukaryotes were formed (more complex organisms)

  86. What was the earth like 500 million years ago?


    The ozone layer formed, fish and plants appeared

  87. What was the earth like 300 million years ago?


    Reptiles formed

  88. What was the earth like 200 million years ago?


    Mammals appeared

  89. What was the earth like 4 million years ago?


    Two legged mammals appeared

  90. What was the earth like 60,000 years ago?


    The first writing was found

  91. What was the earth like 10,000 years ago?

    Homosaipans  learnt to use fire and for casting copper and making pottery
  92. What are similarities of meiosis and mitosis?
    • They both go through interphase where chromosomes duplicate
    • Both processes that cells can divide
    • Spindle fibres are used
    • Line up along centre
    • Main phases
    • At some point two nuclei are formed

  93. What are differences between meiosis and mitosis?
    • In mitosis the gens don't mix and they do in meiosis
    • In mitosis there are two daughter cells are created but in meiosis there are four
    • Mitosis diploid number of chromosome and meiosis there is haploid
    • Mitosis happens in all organisms and meiosis happens in animals

  94. What is a stem cell?


    An undifferentiated cell of an embryo.

  95. What can stem cells become?


    Any type of cell in the human body.

  96. What is different about cancerous stem cells?


    They lack control to stop dividing.

  97. Name two things stem cells  are used for.
    • Parkinson's disease
    • Alzheimer's disease
    • heart disease
    • strokes
    • arthritis
    • diabetes
    • burns
    • spinal chord damage

  98. Name fears on stem therapy.


    It could unwillingly pass viruses and other diseases causing agents to people who receive cell treatment

  99. Where else can stem cells come from?


    Adults without 'hurting' but not as good as embryos

  100. What can happen if you receive stem cell treatment?


    Your body's immune system my reject it as they recognised it as foreign

  101. What does stem cells research hold the key to?


    To reversing the effects of aging ang prolonging our lives

  102. What do some people believe about stem cell research?


    It is unethical because they believe that they are fully developed human corpse

  103. What is a phenotype?


    Characteristics and it is determined by the pair of alleles you have (genotype)

  104. Which is dominant? Bb


    B

  105. Which is recessive? Bb


    b
  106. What are the grey things?
    Alleles

  107. hat is a gene?


    a section of DNA that codes for a particular characteristics 

  108. What is a dominant allele?


    An allele that only one is needed to get the characteristic (most common)

  109. What is a recessive allele?


    The phenotype you must have two of the same allele (non-dominant) Least common.

  110. What is this ?
    • Genetic cross diagram

  111. What is i) TT ii)Tt/tT iii)tt?


    • i)Dominant homozyous
    • ii) Heterozygous
    • iii)Recessive homozygous

  112. What is a carrier?


    Someone who doesn't show the phenotype but has the gene

  113. What is the probability of getting a heterozygous genotype with one homozygous recessive and one heterozygous?


    50%

  114. How can you find out if a male black spotted Dalmatian is dominant homozygous or heterozygous?


    Breed it with a liver spotted female  (recessive homozygous) and if some of the offspring are liver spotted it is heterozygous.

  115. What does DNA stand for?


    Deoxyribonucleic acid

  116. What is the shape of DNA?


    Double helix

  117. What is the structure of DNA?


    Double helix with a sugar phosphate backbone and bases.

  118. What are the bases of DNA and how are they linked?

     
    Adenine + Thymine / Guanine + Cytosine

  119. What is DNA?


    The building blocks for life

  120. What is a mutation?


    When new DNA is different from the original

  121. What are the bases and a phosphate back bone?


    Monomer

  122. How can Cystic fibrosis affect a person's life?


    They will not be able to take part in as much sport or be as active as they will become short of breath. They can get chest infections more easily and they may lack nutrients as food cannot be digested properly.

  123. What is embryo screening?


    Where parents who are carriers of a disease can have IVF so the embryo can been screened so the child does not have the disease.

  124. What does embryo screening involve?


    Testing the embryos' DNA to find out if any have the alleles , then only implanting the unaffected ones into the mother's uterus.

  125. How do plants and animals become fossilised?
    • Bones and teeth do not decay
    • Some parts of organisms do not decay because  conditions are not suitable for decay
    • Parts of an organism may be replaced by other materials such as hard minerals as they decay
    • Traces of an organism, like a footprint , maybe preserved in rocks as prints.

  126. When did life begin ?


    3.8 million years ago

  127. What are causes of extinction?
    • Changes in environment
    • New predators
    • New diseases
    • A more successful competitor

  128. What is mass extinction?


    When a whole species becomes extinct e.g. Dinosaurs

  129. How can a new species arise?


    When a species is isolated and start to breed within a small group

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