Hebrew Bible (prophets and writings)
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The oral Jewish law not contained in the written Scriptures. It systematizes, clarifies, comments on the law.
- SAW DE WHEEL!
- Also, Chapters 1–24 concern the fall of Jerusalem. Chapters 25–39 contain a series of oracles addressed to foreign nations, concluding with a section in which the future of Israel is contrasted with that of the foreign nations. The third section, Chapters 40–48, presents a plan for rebuilding the Temple and reorganizing the restored state of Israel.
- Ezekiel was one of the younger men taken to Babylon in the first captivity, which occurred in 597 B.C. He served as a kind of religious counselor to the Hebrew exiles who were allowed to live in a colony by themselves near the banks of the Kebar River.
A commentary on the Mishna and compilation of accepted traditions
The (Babylonian) Talmud has two components. The first part is the Mishnah (Hebrew: משנה, c. 200 CE), the written compendium of Rabbinic Judaism's Oral Torah (Torah meaning "Instruction", "Teaching" in Hebrew). The second part is the Gemara (c. 500 CE), an elucidation of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Hebrew Bible.
Places for worship and education. This occurs after the exile as a means to maintain Jewish culture and worship.
When did it come into use? After the exile Judah and Israel were separate until the exile.
- Chapters 40–55 in the Book of Isaiah are believed to be the work of a prophet who lived with the Hebrew exiles during the Babylonian captivity. Because this prophet's real name is unknown and his work has been preserved in the collection of writings that include the prophecies of the earlier Isaiah, he is usually designated as Deutero-Isaiah — the second Isaiah.
- Strict monotheism, gave hope to people living in exile
- Idea of the suffering servant: Israel can become a suffering servant for the sins of those holding them in captive, can become a means of salvation
4 sections of Deutero-Isaiah referring to a suffering servant of YHWH (representing Israel in Babylon) who does the will of YHWH/brings salvation
a governor of the Persian Province of Judah (Haggai 1:1) and the grandson of Jehoiachin, penultimate king of Judah. Zerubbabel led the first group of Jews, who returned from the Babylonian Captivity in the first year of Cyrus, King of Persia (Ezra). The date is generally thought to have been between 538 and 520 BC. Zerubbabel also laid the foundation of the Second Temple in Jerusalem soon after.
Returned from the Babylonian exile and reintroduced the Torah in Jerusalem (Ezra 7-10 and Neh 8). The Book of Ezra describes how he led a group of Judean exiles living in Babylon to their home city of Jerusalem (Ezra 8.2-14) where he enforced observance of the Torah and cleansed the community of mixed marriages.
Nehemiah was cup-bearer to the Persian king. Learning that the walls of Jerusalem were broken down he asked the king for permission to return and rebuild them, and Artaxerxes sent him to Judah as governor of the province with a mission to rebuild the walls. Once there he defied the opposition of Judah's enemies on all sides—Samaritans, Ammonites, Arabs and Philistines—and rebuilt the walls within 52 days.
His prophetical career began in the second year of Darius, king of Persia (B.C. 520), about sixteen years after the return of the first company from their Babylonian exile. He was contemporary with Haggai (Ezra 5:1). The return from exile is the theological premise of the prophet's visions in chapters 1–6. Chapters 7–8 address the quality of life God wants his renewed people to enjoy, containing many encouraging promises to them. Chapters 9–14 comprise two "oracles" of the future.
Hebrew prophet during the building of the Second Temple in Jerusalem. He was the first of three post-exile prophets from the Neo-Babylonian Exile of the House of Judah (with Zechariah, his contemporary, and Malachi, who lived about one hundred years later). Haggai's message is filled with an urgency for the people to proceed with the rebuilding of the second Jerusalem temple. Haggai attributes a recent drought to the people's refusal to rebuild the temple, which he sees as key to Jerusalem’s glory. The book ends with the prediction of the downfall of kingdoms, with one Zerubbabel, governor of Judah, as the Lord’s chosen leader.
The book of Malachi was written to correct the lax religious and social behaviour of the Israelites – particularly the priests – in post-exilic Jerusalem. Although the prophets urged the people of Judah and Israel to see their exile as punishment for failing to uphold their covenant with Elohim, it was not long after they had been restored to the land and to Temple worship that the people's commitment to their God began, once again, to wane. It was in this context that the prophet commonly referred to as Malachi delivered his prophecy.
Lament over a great locust plague and a severe drought (1:1–2:17). The effects of these events on agriculture, farmers, and on the supply of agricultural offerings for the Temple in Jerusalem, interspersed with a call to national lament. (1:1–20). A more apocalyptic passage comparing the locusts to an army, and revealing that they are God’s army. (2:1–11)A call to national repentance in the face of God's judgment. (2:12–17)Promise of future blessings (2:18–32)Banishment of the locusts and restoration of agricultural productivity as a divine response to national penitence. (2:18–27)Future prophetic gifts to all God’s people, and the safety of God’s people in the face of cosmic cataclysm. (2:28–32) Coming judgment on God’s (Israel’s) enemies and the vindication of Israel. (3:1–21)
an oracle concerning the divine judgment of Edom and the restoration of Israel. The text consists of a single chapter, divided into 21 verses, making it the shortest book in the Hebrew Bible. The book of Obadiah is based on a prophetic vision concerning the fall of Edom,[v.1,4,18] a mountain dwelling nation[v.8,9,19,21] whose Founding Father was Esau.[v.6]Obadiah describes an encounter with God who addresses Edom’s arrogance and charges them for their violent actions against their brother nation, the House of Jacob. In 597 BCE Nebuchadnezzar II sacked Jerusalem, carted away the King of Judea and installed a puppet ruler. The Edomites helped the Babylonians loot the city. Obadiah, writing this prophesy around 590 BCE, suggests the Edomites should have remembered that blood was thicker than water.
the story of a Hebrew prophet named Jonah ben Amittai who is sent by God to prophesy the destruction of Nineveh but tries to escape the divine mission.Set in the reign of Jeroboam II (786–746 BC), it was probably written in the post-exilic period, sometime between the late 5th to early 4th century BC.
Cyrus the Great
Neobabylonian emperor from 559 BC – 530 BC (30 years) What is sometimes referred to as the Edict of Restoration (actually two edicts) described in the Bible as being made by Cyrus the Great left a lasting legacy on the Jewish religion where because of his policies in Babylonia, he is referred to by the Jewish Bible as Messiah (Isaiah 44:24, 26–45:3, 13) and is the only non-Jew to be called so:So said the Lord to His anointed one, to Cyrus — Isa 45:1-7
Chronicles vs. Samuel/Kings
Chronicles: post-exilic, probably compiled by a priestly editor. Gives prominence to priests & levites, no information about northern tribes/israel concurrent with judean kingdoms, idealizes david (no bathsheeba, blames the census on 'the adversary'), cleaned up solomon (no later idolatry, no bloody ascension to the throne), says king manasseh repents, emphasis on ethical and ritual purity, emphasis on jerusalem temple, show the davidic monarch as forerunners to the aristocracy that ran the 2nd temple
Hebrew for Psalms
Royal, laments, festival
- Gained prominence during the court of Solomon. Originally a court movement: wisdom taught to male children of elite classes. After the exile, wisdom becomes available and popular among the masses. General Categories:
- Practical (guide for living) – Proverbs
- Speculative (raises questions) – Job, Ecclesiastes.
a short parable with a moral lesson or religious allegory. Two line saying that teaches a moral lesson by contrasting behaviors
A poetic literary device which involves the repetition of one idea in successive lines. The first half of a verse will make a statement, and the second half will essentially say the same thing in different words. The statements are “parallel” in that they are juxtaposed, or side by side, and they often share similar syntax. The statements are “synonymous” in that they say the same thing, with some minor variations. Other types of parallelism found in Hebrew poetry includeantithetical parallelismandsynthetic parallelism, but synonymous parallelism is probably the most common.
Antithetical parallelism provides an antithesis, or contrast. A verse containing antithetical parallelism will bring together opposing ideas in marked contrast. Instead of saying the same thing twice, it says one thing and then a different thing.The antithetical parallelism in Ecclesiastes 10:2is quite apparent:“The heart of the wise inclines to the right, but the heart of the fool to the left.”Two hearts, two directions. The wise man’s heart desires one thing, and the fool’s heart desires something completely different. Their inclinations are antithetical.
- Matched to which Book of the Bible? parts of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third major section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible).
- The Five Scrolls are the Song of Songs, the Book of Ruth, the Book of Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Esther. These five relatively short biblical books are grouped together in Jewish tradition.Which is the feast at which it is read? Esther on Purim and Lamentations on the Ninth of Ab. Song of Songs during Passover, Ruth is read during Shavuot (Weeks), and Ecclesiastes during Sukkot (Tents or Booths)
Divides into two parts, a set of tales in chapters 1–6 in which Daniel and his companions demonstrate the superiority of their God, and the series of visions making up chapters 7–12. Traditionally ascribed to Daniel himself, modern scholarly consensus considers the book pseudonymous, the stories of the first half legendary in origin, and the visions of the second the product of anonymous authors in the Maccabean period (2nd century BCE). Its exclusion from the Prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve) was probably because it appeared after the canon for those books had closed, and the dominant view among scholars is that Daniel is not in any case a prophetic book but an apocalypse.
An outgrowth of the prophetic tradition. After exile, Israel worries when the day of YHWH will come.
1. Pessimistic about present times and hopes on God’s end to the present age
2. Usually symbolic language that must be interpreted to the average reader
3. Usually have an eschatological outlook (from Greek, eschaton - “last things”)
4. Strong sense of theodicy – God’s justice will prevail and true piety will be rewarded
5. Strong sense of universality: while still concerned about the fate of Israel; Israel’s fate is seen against the backdrop on a cosmic scale
Daniel was written during the time of the persecutions of Antiochus IV Epiphanes to encourage the Jews and polemicize Antiochus IV
Leaders of a Jewish rebel army that took control of Judea, which at the time had been a province of the Seleucid Empire. They founded the Hasmonean dynasty, which ruled from 164 BCE to 63 BCE. They reasserted the Jewish religion, partly by forced conversion, expanded the boundaries of Judea by conquest and reduced the influence of Hellenism and Hellenistic Judaism.
The historical spread of ancient Greek culture and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greece or brought into its sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great of Macedon. The result of Hellenization was that elements of Greek origin combined in various forms and degrees with local elements.
Alexander the Great
a king of the Greek kingdom of Macedon. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander succeeded his father, Philip II, to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, until by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching fromGreece to Egypt and into present-day Pakistan.
Antiochus IV Ephiphanes
a Greek king of the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC. He was a son of King Antiochus III the Great. His original name was Mithradates (alternative form Mithridates); he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne.Notable events during the reign of Antiochus IV include his near-conquest of Egypt, which led to a confrontation that became an origin of the metaphorical phrase, "line in the sand" (see below), and the rebellion of the Jewish Maccabees.While Antiochus was busy in Egypt, a rumor spread that he had been killed. The deposed High Priest Jason gathered a force of 1,000 soldiers and made a surprise attack on the city of Jerusalem. The High Priest appointed by Antiochus, Menelaus, was forced to flee Jerusalem during a riot. On the King's return from Egypt in 167 BC enraged by his defeat, he attacked Jerusalem and restored Menelaus, then executed many Jews.To consolidate his empire and strengthen his hold over the region, Antiochus decided to side with the Hellenized Jews by outlawing Jewish religious rites and traditionskept by observant Jews and by ordering the worship of Zeus as the supreme god (2 Maccabees 6:1–12). This was anathema to the Jews and when they refused, Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree. Because of the resistance, the city was destroyed, many were slaughtered, and a military Greek citadel called the Acra was established.
an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire of the 2nd century BCE. Hanukkah is observed for eight nights and days, starting on the 25th day of Kislev according to the Hebrew calendar, which may occur at any time from late November to late December in the Gregorian calendar. The Maccabees successfully rebelled against Antiochus IV Epiphanes. According to theTalmud, a late text, the Temple was purified and the wicks of the menorah miraculously burned for eight days, even though there was only enough sacred oil for one day's lighting.
Dead Sea Scrolls
a collection of 981 texts discovered between 1946 and 1956 at KhirbetQumran in the West Bank. They were found inside caves about a mile inland from the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, from which they derive their name. Nine of the scrolls were rediscovered at the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) in 2014, after they had been stored unopened for six decades following their excavation in 1952. The texts are of great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the earliest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism.
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