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  1. What are the structural components of a neuron and what is their function?
    • Dendrites (input of information and integration)
    • Soma (cell body)
    • Axon (Information transport)
    • nerve terminals (Output of information)
  2. What are the types of synaptic interactions between neurons?
    • Dendrosomatic
    • axoaxonic
    • axodendritic
    • dendrodendritic
    • axosomatic
  3. What are the two ways of neurotransmission?
    electrical and chemical
  4. what is electrical neurotransmission?
    direct coupling of electrical activity through gap junctions
  5. What is chemical neurotransmission?
    release of transmitters from vesicles at the synapse
  6. 4 targets of neurotransmitters after release from the nerve terminal
    • 1. receptors on adjacent postsynaptic neurons at a site close to the release site
    • 2. extrajunctional site
    • 3. on a postsynaptic neuron distant t the release site
    • 4. a glial cell distant from the site of release
  7. what is the life cycle of a neurotransmitter?
    • synthesis
    • storage
    • release
    • binding
    • re-uptake or degradation(for proteins and peptides)
  8. What are the 4 general types of neurotransmitters?
    • amino acids
    • biogenic amines
    • peptides
    • other
  9. chemical classes of neurotransmitters
    • primary amines
    • amino acids
    • nucleotides and nucleosides
    • peptides
    • gases
  10. What are the 2 divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
    autonomic and somatic
  11. What are the 2 divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
    • Parsympathetic
    • sympathetic
  12. where do the cell bodies reside in the somatic system?
    in the CNS
  13. where do the axons in the somatic system extend to?
    extend to the skeletal muscles
  14. what are the two motor neurons of the autonomic system?
    preganglionic and ganglionic
  15. which is slower? autonomic or somatic
    autonomic because it is not myelinated
  16. What does the autonomic system regulate?
    regulates the body activities that are generally not under conscious control
  17. what are the receptors in effector organs of the sympathetic system?
    adrenergic receptors
  18. what are the receptors in effector organs of the parasympathetic system?
    cholinergic receptors
  19. explain 3 different pathways the sympathetic nervous system takes starting from the CNS
    • 1. preganglionic neuron (cholinergic)--> ACh-->nicotinic cholinergic receptor--> postganglionic neuron (adrenergic)--> NE--> adrenergic receptor on effector organ
    • 2. preganglionic neuron (Cholinergic) -->ACh--> Nicotinic cholinergic receptors on adrenal gland--> Epinephrine --> adrenergic receptor on effector organ
    • 3. preganglionic neuron (cholinergic/longer) --> ACh--> nicotinic cholinergic receptor ---> Postganglionic neuron (adrenergic/shorter) --->NE --> adrenergic receptors on effector organ
  20. what is the pathway the parasympathetic system uses starting from the CNS?
    preganglionic neuron(cholinergic) -->ACh---> nicotinic cholinergic receptor --> ACh--> mascarinci cholinergic receptor --> cholinergic receptor of effector organ
  21. where is acetylcholine synthesized?
    synthesized in presynaptic termia from chopin and acetyl coenzyme A
  22. what is ACh broken down by?
    acetylcholinesterase AChE
  23. what does AChE break won ACh into?
    choline and acetyl CoA
  24. Where does the choline go after it is broken down?
    it is reabsorbed by neuron to synthesize more ACh
  25. Where is Norepinephrine synthesized?
    in the presynaptic terminal from tyrosine
  26. what kind of receptors does norepinephrine bind to?
    • Alpha -2 on the presynaptic neuron
    • Alpha 1 or Beta 1 on postsynaptic cell
  27. what breaks down Norepinephrin?
  28. what are the signal transductions from norepinephrine?
    • protein kinase activation
    • protein phosphorylation
  29. What does catechol - O methyl transferase (COMT) do to norepinephrine and where is it?
    it is in the postsynaptic membrane and converts NE to normetanephrine
  30. what does MAO -B do?
    metabolizes dopamine
  31. What does MAO-A do?
    metabolizes NA and serotonin
  32. What is VMA?
    vanillylmandelic acid which is the common metabolite
  33. what does acetylcholine induce in heart muscle cells?
    decreased rate and force of contraction
  34. what does acetylcholine induce in salivary gland cells?
  35. wat does ACh induce in skeletal muscle cells?
  36. what are the 2 types of ACh receptors?
    muscarinic receptors and Nicotinic receptors
  37. what type of receptor is a muscarinic?
  38. What type of receptor is Nicotinic?
    ion channel
  39. General Pathway for muscarinic GPCR receptor
    activation--> G𝛼 and Gβ𝛾 dissociates --> Gβ𝛾 opens K+ channels to decrease the amplitude of contraction
  40. which muscarinic receptors are inhibitory?
    M2 and M4
  41. Which muscarinic receptors are excitatory?
    M1 M3 M5
  42. where are M1 located and what does it do?
    secretory glands (salivation, stomach acid, sweating, lacrimation)
  43. where are M2 located?
    heart (decreases heart rate = bradycardia)
  44. where are M3 located?
    • Smooth muscle (diarrhea,bronchospasm, urination)
    • miosis, pupil, and ciliary muscle (increased flow of aqueous humor)
  45. where is Nm located and what does it do?
    skeletal muscles end plate (contraction of skeletal muscle)
  46. where is Nn and what does it do?
    autonomic ganglia and adrenal medulla (secretion of epinephrine/ controls ANS)
  47. What tissues are 𝛼1 receptors in and what does it do?
    • vascular smooth muscle (Contraction)
    • pupillary dilator muscle (contraction = dilates pupil)
    • pilomotor smooth muscle (errects hair)
    • prostate (Contraction)
    • heart (force of contraction increased)
  48. What tissues does 𝛼2 receptors in and what does it do?
    adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals (inhibition of transmitter release)
  49. What tissue is β1 in and what does it do?
    heart (force and rate of contraction increased)
  50. What tissue is β2 receptor in and does it do?
    • respiratory, uterine and vascular smooth muscle (Promotes smooth muscle relaxation)
    • liver (Glycogenolysis increased)
  51. What tissue is β3 receptors in and what does it do?
    fat cells (lipolysis increased)
  52. What is the end organ that the somatic nervous system effects?
    skeletal muscle
  53. what is the neurotransmitter for the somatic nervous system?
  54. Activation of Sympathetic Nervous System produces what effects?
    • dialates pupils
    • stop saliva secretion
    • dilate bronchioles
    • increase heart rate
    • secret epinephrine
    • decreases secretion of liver
    • decrease motility
    • retain contents
    • delay emptying bladder
  55. Activation of parasympathetic Nervous System produces what effects?
    • constrict pupil
    • secrete saliva
    • constrict bronchioles
    • decrease heart rate
    • increase secretion in liver
    • increase motility of colon
    • empty bladder
Card Set:
2014-05-04 01:55:50

lectures 1&2
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