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2009-10-14 09:43:49

Psychology Review Chapters 1-5
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  1. D.U.P.I.A.
    • Describe: species behavior
    • Understand: causes of behaviors
    • Predict: behavior under conditions
    • Influence: behavior through control of causes
    • Apply: psych knowledge to enhance human welfare
  2. structuralism
    study the structures of the mind (sensations)
  3. functionalism
    functions of behavior
  4. S.P. 1
    Step 1: Identify a question of interest
  5. S.P. 2
    Step 2: Gather Information and form hypothesis
  6. S.P. 3
    Step 3: Test hypothesis by conducting research
  7. S.P. 4
    Step 4: Analyze data, draw tentative conclusions and report findings.
  8. S.P. 5
    Step 5: Build a body of knowledge
  9. operational definition
    defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it
  10. Ethics in Psych Exp. (B.R.I.J.R.)
    • Beneficence: benefit
    • Responsibility: utmost care
    • Integrity: honest and accurate
    • Justice: access to psych knowledge
    • Respect: confidentiality and self-determination
  11. Informed consent
    • (before a study they must know:)
    • purpose and procedures
    • benefits
    • risks
    • right to decline or withdraw anytime
    • confidentiality (if not, privacy safeguarded)
  12. Experiment (3 essential characteristics) [M.M.C.]
    • Manipulates(controls) one or more variables
    • Measures whether this manipulation influences other variables
    • attempts to Control extraneous factors that might influence the outcome of the experiment
  13. Internal Validity
    the degree to which an experiment supports clear causal conclusions
  14. Confounding of variables
    two variables are intertwined in such a way that we cannot determine which one has influenced a dependent variable
  15. external validity
    degree to which the results of a study can be generalized to other populations, settings, and conditions
  16. meta-analysis
    combining results of different studies that examine the same topic
  17. polygenic transmission
    a number of gene pairs combine their influences to create a single phenotypic trait
  18. behavior genetics
    how heredity and environmental factors influence psychological characteristics
  19. concordance
    trait similarity
  20. heritability statistic
    estimates the extent to which the differences, or variation, in a specific phentotypic characteristic within a group of people can be attributed to their differing genes
  21. adaptive significance
    how behavior influences an organism's chances of survival and reproduction in its natural environment
  22. fixed action pattern
    unlearned response automatically triggered by a particular stimulus
  23. evocative influence
    that a child's genetically influenced behaviors may evoke certain responses from others
  24. strategic pluralism
    multiple behavioral strategies might be adaptive in certain environments and would therefore be maintained through natural selection