Stem Cell Biology 2

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a9silva
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273014
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Stem Cell Biology 2
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2014-05-03 20:24:44
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Stem Cell
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Stem Cell Biology
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  1. Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)
    (HSCs) reside in the medulla of the bone (bone marrow) and have the unique ability to give rise to all of the different mature blood cell types and tissues. HSCs are self-renewing cells: when they proliferate, at least some of their daughter cells remain as HSCs, so the pool of stem cells does not become depleted.This phenomenon is called asymmetric division.

    The other daughters of HSCs (myeloid and lymphoid progenitor cells), however can commit to any of the alternative differentiation pathways that lead to the production of one or more specific types of blood cells, but cannot self-renew.

    The pool of progenitors is heterogeneous and can be divided into two groups, long-term self-renewing HSC and only transiently self-renewing HSC, also called short-terms.This is one of the main vital processes in the body.

    • All blood cells are divided into three lineages.
    • Erythroid cells are the oxygen carrying red blood cells. Both reticulocytes and erythrocytes are functional and are released into the blood. In fact, a reticulocyte count estimates the rate of erythropoiesis.

    Lymphocytes are the cornerstone of the adaptive immune system. They are derived from common lymphoid progenitors. The lymphoid lineage is primarily composed of T-cellsand B-cells (types of white blood cells). This is lymphopoiesis.

    Myelocytes, which include granulocytes, megakaryocytes and macrophages and are derived from common myeloid progenitors, are involved in such diverse roles as innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and blood clotting. This is myelopoiesis.Granulopoiesis (or granulocytopoiesis) is haematopoiesis of granulocytes.Megakaryocytopoiesis is haematopoiesis of megakaryocytes.
  2. erythrocytes
    Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues via the blood flow through the circulatory system.[1] They take up oxygen in the lungs or gills and release it into tissues while squeezing through the body's capillaries.
  3. Chemotaxis
    Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus. Somatic cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. This is important for bacteria to find food (for example, glucose) by swimming toward the highest concentration of food molecules, or to flee from poisons (for example, phenol).
  4. erythroblast
    An erythroblast is a type of red blood cell which still retains a cell nucleus. It is the immediate precursor of a normal erythrocyte.
  5. Erythropoietin
    Erythropoietin, also known as EPO, is a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production. 

    Erythropoietin is an essential hormone for red cell production. Without it, definitive erythropoiesis does not take place. Under hypoxic conditions, the kidney will produce and secrete erythropoietin to increase the production of red blood cells.
  6. Flow cytometers
    In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.

    Flow cytometry is routinely used in the diagnosis of health disorders, especially blood cancers, but has many other applications in basic research, clinical practice and clinical trials. A common variation is to physically sort particles based on their properties, so as to purify populations of interest.
  7. Leukemia
    Leukemia is a type of cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal increase of immature white blood cells called "blasts".

    Clinically and pathologically, leukemia is subdivided into a variety of large groups. The first division is between its acute and chronic forms:

    Acute leukemia is characterized by a rapid increase in the number of immature blood cells. Crowding due to such cells makes the bone marrow unable to produce healthy blood cells. Immediate treatment is required in acute leukemia due to the rapid progression and accumulation of the malignant cells, which then spill over into the bloodstream and spread to other organs of the body. Acute forms of leukemia are the most common forms of leukemia in children.

    Chronic leukemia is characterized by the excessive build up of relatively mature, but still abnormal, white blood cells. Typically taking months or years to progress, the cells are produced at a much higher rate than normal, resulting in many abnormal white blood cells. Whereas acute leukemia must be treated immediately, chronic forms are sometimes monitored for some time before treatment to ensure maximum effectiveness of therapy. Chronic leukemia mostly occurs in older people, but can theoretically occur in any age group.
  8. Sources of Bone Marrow Stem Cells
    Bone marrow harvest: Collecting stem cells by taking them directly out of the bone.

    Apheresis: Collecting stem cells by filtering the blood for peripheral (circulating) blood cells(PBSC).

    Umbilical cord blood: Stem cells are filtered from blood in the umbilical cord after a baby is born.
  9. Two Types of Bone Marrow Transplants
    Autologous bone marrow transplant - The donor is the person him/herself.

    Allogenic bone marrow transplant - The donor is another person whose tissue has the same genetic type as the person needing the transplant (recipient).Because tissue types are inherited, similar to hair or eye color, it is more likely that the recipient will find a suitable donor in a brother or sister. This, however,happens only 25 to 30 percent of the time.
  10. Potential for Embrayonic Stem Cell ESCs
    • Test Drug in Human Cell in Culture
    •   - test drug before conducting clinical trials
    •   - toxicity testing

    Study Cell Differentiation

    Generate tissue and or cells for transplantation.

    Understand how to treat and prevent birth defects.
  11. Neural stem cell
    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing, multipotent cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system.

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