Unit 5 Electrons

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solo_mani
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Unit 5 Electrons
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2014-05-03 21:40:04
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  1. Anion
    A negatively charged ion.
  2. Cation
    A positively charged ion.
  3. Electron
    A particle with a net charge of –1 and a mass of 1/1836 a.m.u., found in the energy levels outside the nucleus. They are lost, gained or shared in the formation of a chemical bond.
  4. Electronegativity
    An atom’s attraction to electrons in achemical bond. Used to determinebond type, polarity of a molecule and attractive force typeand strength.
  5. Excited State
    A condition where and atom’s electrons occupy higher energy levels than they normally would.
  6. Frequency (ν)
    The number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point per second.
  7. Ground State
    A condition where an atom’s electrons are occupying the lowest possible energy states.
  8. Ion
    A charged atom or group of atoms formed by the gain orloss ofelectrons.
  9. Ionic radius
    The measure of the size of an ion.
  10. Ionization energy
    The energy required to remove an atom’s most loosely held valence electron, measured when the element is in the gas phase.
  11. Kernal




    Photon An infinitesimally small particle that travels in a
    wave-fashion that is

    released when electrons fall from the excited state into the
    ground state.

    It is also known as a packet of light-energy or quanta.
    The atom beneath the valence electrons, including the rest of the electrons in the lower energy levels and the nucleus.
  12. Orbital
    A region of space around the nucleus that is the most likely location one can find an electron in an atom.
  13. Orbital Notation
    Also called “box diagrams”, these schematics describe the location and spin of every electron in an atom.
  14. Oxidation
    The loss of electrons from an atom or ion.
  15. Photon
    An infinitesimally small particle that travels in a wave-fashion that is released when electrons fall from the excited state into the ground state.It is also known as a packet of light-energy or quanta.
  16. Planck’s Constant (h)
    A proportionality constant thatconverts Hz (frequency) to J (energy). It is6.6 X 10-34 J/Hz.
  17. Reduction
    The gain of electrons by an atom or ion.
  18. Quantum Number
    A four-digit series of numbers that identifies the location of a specific electron around the nucleus based on PEL, sublevel, orbital and spin.
  19. Shell (Principal Energy Level, PEL)
    The most general location an electron can be found around the nucleus.
  20. Stable octet
    An electron configuration that is reached when atoms gain, lose or share electrons in an attempt to get a noble gas electron configuration of eight valence electrons. Hydrogen is an exception to this “Rule of Eight”.
  21. Sublevel
    Regions of space that electrons occupy make up a principal energy level.
  22. Speed of Light (c)
    The velocity of light photons in a vacuum, 3.0 X 108 m/second.
  23. Valence electrons
    The electrons that reside in the outmost principal energy level of an atom.These electrons are lost, gained or shared in the formation of a chemical bond.
  24. Wavelength (λ)
    The distance from one peak to the next in a wave. Measured in meters.

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