Bio Final: Seeds (6) {Gnetophytes)

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  1. Constitutes a small group. Although they are very different from one another, they have certain  similar characteristics, which are?
    has xylen vessels; although they aren't ancestral to flowering plants, they have these just like flowering plants and are the only gymnosperms to have them

    compound strobili: each cone ins a collection of reduced cones

    nonmotile sperm: also in conifers and flowering plants

    no archegonia in Gnetum and Welwitschia: another characteristic of flowering plants which doont produce archegonia
  2. So, what identifies this species?
    the compound cones
  3. a.       First genus is clled Ephedra
                                                                   i.      Only gnetophyte __
                                                                 ii.      __ species of Ephedra
                                                                iii.      Climate liked: __
                                                               iv.      Resembles Equisetum because the __
    1.       Unlike Equisetum, this plant has __; also has __(which is what Equisetum would have)
    • native to the US
    • Thirty to forty
    • dry, warm, climates
    • leaves are very tiny; and, the stems seem bare
    • water-conducting cells that resemble xylem vessels
    • tracheids
  4.                                                                i.      Most of these plants are __, which means literally __

    a.       Male and female are __
                                                                                                                                           i.      Plants look alike; but reproductive structures look different from one another
    The seeds that develop are pretty much __
    • diecious
    • two houses
    • not together but are instead on separate plants
    • singlular and brightly colored
  5. a.       Economic importance
                                                                   i.      Original source of __ (synthetic version)
    1.       Natural compounds are pretty much replaced by __
    2.       Both do what?
    a.       Used in __, but it is dangerous
                                                                                                                                           i.      Illegal because its dangerous and people die from taking either one
    • ephedrine and pseudoephedrine
    • synthetic versions
    • increase heart rate and metabolism
    • diet pills
  6. 1.       More commonly, and at a lower dose, pseduoepherdrine is used in __ (taking place of ephedrine)
    a.       does what
                                                                                                                                           i.      Most nasal sprays have been replaced by another compound
    • nose drops
    • Shrinks mucous membranes
  7. a.       It warns you on the package not to use it more than __ because, what they have a tendency to do, is __
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   i.      The nasal spray causes the mucous membranes to swell up and you use more nasal spray and it causes more mucus swelling and more spray to be used
    • three days
    • cause the rebound effect
  8. 1.       Can be used in __ to reduce the membranes of the bronchi
    asthma medications
  9. a.       Second genus is Gnetum
                                                                   i.      Structure?

                                                                 ii.      They all have __ in common

                                                                iii.      Location: __
                                                               iv.      __
    1.       __ 
    • Can be a tree, shrub, or vine
    • broad leaves
    • tropical areas
    • Functionally dioecious
    • Functionally male
  10.                                                                i.      Plant produces numerous __; and, same for female
                                                                 ii.      They have what look like __ but only one is __
                                                                iii.      Female cone
    1.       Female cones appear to have what look like __
    2.       Seeds are born __
    • male primary cones
    • male and female parts
    • functional
    • reduced cones
    • individually
  11. O                                                               i.      Sometimes, the young leaves or seeds are eaten
    1.       People who live in tropical areas; not all that common
                                                                 ii.      Looks like flowering plants
  12. a.       Third genus is Welwitschia mirabilis
                                                                   i.      Habitat: __ (maybe gets one inch of rain a year)
    1.       Plants get a lot of their moisture from __
    2.       Can live for thousands of years
    a.       They grow __, but are endangered
    • western Africa
    • coastal mists
    • slowly
  13.                                                                i.      Structure
    Stem? Leaves?
    • 1.       Top of stem is broad, narrows down, and has a long taproot, which helps in obtaining water; Top of stem looks very rough; Stem inverts outward
    • 2.       Plant only ever has two leaves; only produces two leaves in its lifetime
  14. Structure cont. 
    - Leaf
    • 1.       It looks like there’s more than one leaf, but those are the break points on the leaf               
    • a.       The wind causes it to tear lengthwise
  15. Where does it produce reproductive structure?
    • 1.       Where it produces reprdocutive structure is right where the leaf meets the stem
    • a.       Strobili arise where leaves attach to stems
    • b.      Reproductive structures look similar, but are smaller in mael than female

    has separate male and female plants
  16. 1.       Has __ and__ cones (which look like scales)
    a.       Secondary cones are __
    2.       Can have clusters of __
    3.       __
    a.       Probably most of the seeds never amount to anything due to the very arid environment
    • primary cones
    •  there are secondary
    • very reduced and don’t look like cones at all
    • primary cones
    • Separate male and female plants
  17.                                                                i.     __ species
    1.       __ and __ have more than one species
    b.      Ultimately, gnetophytes are a dead-end group; they didn’t evolve at all
    • only one
    • Gnetum and ephedria
Card Set:
Bio Final: Seeds (6) {Gnetophytes)
2014-05-04 02:02:20
Plant Kingdom
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