Unit 6 Period Table & Bonding

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Unit 6 Period Table & Bonding
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2014-05-03 22:14:38
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  1. Alkali metal
    An element in Group 1 of the periodic table.These elements are extremely reactive.
  2. Alkaline earth metal
    An element in Group 2 of the periodic table. These elements are very reactive.
  3. Anion
    A negatively charged ion.
  4. Atomic radius
    The size of an atom. Sometimes called“covalent atomic radius”.
  5. Brittle
    The ability to be crushed into pieces when hammered,a property of nonmetals.
  6. Cation
    A positively charged ion.
  7. Diatomic molecule
    A nonmetal atom that forms one or more nonpolar covalent bonds with another atom of the same element to form a molecule consisting of the two atoms when there is no  other element to bond with. Elements that do this are Br, I, N, H,Cl, H, O and F.
  8. Ductile
    The ability to be stretched into a wire, a property of metals.
  9. Dull
    The lack of ability to reflect light efficiently, a property of nonmetals.
  10. Group
    Columns down the periodic table that denote elements with the same number of valence electrons and similar chemical properties.
  11. Halogen
    An element in Group 17 of the periodic table. These elements are extremely reactive.
  12. Ionic Bond
    A bond formed when a metal atom loses its valence electrons to a nonmetal atom,forming positive and negatively charged ions that attract to each other.
  13. Ionic Radius
    The size of an ion compared to the original atom. Metal atoms lose electrons and form+ charged ions that are smaller than the original atom,nonmetal atoms form – charged ions that are larger than the original atom.
  14. Luster
    The ability to reflect light, a property of metals.
  15. Malleable
    The ability to be hammered or rolled into thin sheets, a property of metals.
  16. Metal
    Elements that have low electronegativity and ionization energy and large radius that tend to lose electrons to form chemical bonds.
  17. Metallic bond
    A bond formed between metal atoms of the same element resulting from the atom is losing the electrons to each other and sharing them loosely as a result.
  18. Metalloid
    Elements that exhibit properties of both metals and nonmetals.
  19. Molecular orbital
    A hybrid orbital made up of the shared unpaired valence electrons of two nonmetallic atoms. This orbital belongs to both of the bonded atoms rather than to any specific atom.
  20. Monatomic molecule
    An atom of noble gas, which is considered to be a molecule because there are no unpaired valence electrons.
  21. Noble gas
    An element in Group 18 of the periodic table.These elements are nonreactive.
  22. Nonmetal
    Elements that have high electronegativity and ionization energy and small radius that tend to gain or share electrons to form chemical bonds.
  23. Nonpolar covalent bond
    A bond formed between two nonmetal atoms when unpaired electrons of two atoms are shared equally, with an electronegativity difference of 0 to 0.4.
  24. Nonreactive
    Not capable of readily undergoing a chemical change.Oxidation The loss of valence electrons from an atom or ion,resulting in the increase in oxidation number of an element.
  25. Period
    Rows across the periodic table that denote elements with the same number of principal energy levels.
  26. Polar Covalent bond
    A bond formed between two nonmetal atoms when unpaired electrons of two atoms are shared unequally, with an electronegativity difference of 0.5 to 1.7.
  27. Reactive
    Capable of readily undergoing a chemical change.
  28. Reduction
    The gain of valence electrons from an atom or ion,resulting in the decrease in oxidation number of an element.
  29. Semiconductor
    An element that can act as either a conductor or insulator, depending on the situation.Used to manufacture microscopic on-off switches called transistors in computer chips.
  30. Stock system
    A method for naming ions of elements that can form more than one possible positive charge by using a Roman numeral after the ion name to denote the ion’s charge.
  31. Transition metal
    An element in Groups 3-12 of the periodic table. Many of these elements have colored ions.

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