Geology Pt. 4

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SeanHatfield
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273069
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Geology Pt. 4
Updated:
2014-05-03 22:41:20
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Geology
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Geology
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Geodude
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  1. Air is mostly composed of...
    Nitrogen.
  2. Why is the ozone important?
    Where is it concentrated in the atmospehere?
    • Can absorb 97-99% of harmful ultraviolet radiation. 
    • Stratosphere.
  3. Earth re-radiates radiation at _______ wave lengths. This process is called ________.
    • longer
    • Greenhouse Effect
  4. What are the major greenhouse gases?
    These gases re-radiate energy towards ______ and heat _______.
    • Carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere.
    • the earth
    • the lower atmosphere.
  5. What is insolation? 
    Why is insolation responsible for the equator being hotter than the poles?
    • The heat from the sun on the surface of the earth. 
    • Poles receive about half as much heat from the sun as the equator
  6. _________ location is warmer in summer and cooler in winter. 
    _________ location is cooler in summer and warmer in winter.
    • Inland location
    • coastal location
  7. _________ is the most important control of temperature.
    Receipt of solar radiation
  8. Winds blowing from the ocean onto the shore (coastal city) is a _________ coast.

    Prevailing winds blowing from the land toward the ocean (inland city) is a _________ coast.
    • Winward coast
    • Leeward coast
  9. Which of the following is NOT true of incoming solar radiation?
    A.) It can be scattered.
    B.) It can be absorbed and re-radiated at shorter wavelengths. 
    C.) It can be reflected.
    D.) It can be absorbed and re-radiated at longer wavelengths.
    B.) It can be absorbed and re-radiated at shorter wavelengths.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. When is air saturated?
    When it is filled with water vapor to 100% capacity.
  11. Relative humidity is...
    The ratio of vapor in air over the amount of vapor required for saturation at the given temperature.
  12. What is the dew point temperature?
    • Temperature needed to reach saturation.
    • It is the temperature at which water vapor condenses to liquid
  13. How are clouds classified? 

    _________ clouds are one of the chief precipitation producers.

    Clouds of vertical development, called _________, that often produce rain showers and thunderstorms.
    • Form and height.
    • Nimbostratus.
    • Cumulonimbus
  14. what is atmospheric pressure?

    less pressure results in _______ weather.
    High pressure results in _______ weather.
    Force exerted by the weight of the air above.

    • cloudy and possibe precipitation
    • Clear
  15. ________ help us predict weather.
    Changes in air pressure.
  16. Air flows from areas of ______ pressure to areas of ______ pressure.
    • high
    • low
  17. What are isobars?

    Widely spaced isobars indicate _______ pressure gradient and _______ winds.

    Closely spaced isobars indicate _______ steep pressure gradient and _______ winds.
    Lines of equal air pressure

    • weak
    • light

    • steep
    • high
  18. _________ can create a surface low, by starting upflow into the atmosphere.
    Divergence aloft.
  19. What is the Coriolis effect?

    Air is deflected around __________ in counter-clockwise direction on the _______ hemisphere and clockwise in the _______ hemisphere.
    Deflection in wind direction due to earth's rotation.

    • low pressure centers
    • northern hemisphere
    • southern hemisphere
  20. What is a cyclone? 

    What are the associated winds in the Northern and Southern hemispheres?
    A center of low pressure. Brings clouds and precipitation.

    • North: inward (convergence) and counterclockwise
    • South: Inward (convergence) and clockwise
  21. What is an anticyclone? 

    What are the associated winds in the Northern hemisphere and the Southern hemisphere?
    A center of high pressure. Brings fair weather.

    • North: outward (divergence) and clockwise
    • South: outward (divergence) and counterclockwise
  22. What are the four main air masses classified by latitude and nature of surface in the source region? What weather do they bring?
    • Latitude: 
    • Polar (P)- cold. High latitudes.
    • Tropical (T)- warm. Low latitudes.

    • Nature of surface:
    • Continental (c)- dry. Form over land.
    • Maritime (m)- humid. Form over water.
  23. What are the four fronts, what they are characterized by, and what weather they bring?
    Warm front: warm air replaces cooler air. Light to moderate precipitation with lower clouds. 

    Cold front: cold air replaces warm air. More violent weather. 

    Stationary front: Flow of air on both sides is almost parallel to the line of the front. Surface position of front DOES NOT MOVE.

    Occluded front: Active cold front overtakes a warm front. Complex weather.
  24. In which directions do fronts move?
    East. (except stationary fronts don't move)
  25. How does a midlatitude cyclone form?
    Start as a stationary front. A mountain, etc, distorts the front with warm air pushing north and cold air pushing south, forming it.
  26. What are the three stages of formation of thunderstorms?
    • Cumulus stage
    • Mature stage
    • Dissipating stage
  27. What are the features of tornadoes? 

    In which direction do tornadoes move?
    • Violent windstorm
    • rotating column of air that extends downward from a cumulonimbus cloud.
    • Low pressures inside causes air to rush in.

    Northeast
  28. tornadoes are measured by the ________ scale.
    Fujita
  29. Tornadoes are associated with huge thunderstorms called...
    Supercells.
  30. What is a hurricane?

    Describe the different features.
    Most violent storms on earth. Winds must be in excess of 74 mph.

    Eyewall, eye, spiral rain bands
  31. What three conditions are required to form a hurricane?
    1. Pre-existing disturbance w/ thunderstorms.2. Warm ocean waters w/ temp. of at least 80 degrees F down to depth of 150 ft. 3. Light upper level winds that don't change much throughout the depth pf the atmosphere.
  32. What are the three categories of damage caused by a hurricane?

    Which causes the largest loss of life?
    • Storm surge
    • Wind damage
    • Inland flooding from torrential rains.

    Storm surge
  33. Which type of severe weather has the steepest pressure gradient?
    Hurricanes? Maybe.
  34. Carbon dioxide quantity is related to the season of ________. Plants absorb CO2 in _______, leading to lower CO2 after. Plants stop in ________ leading to higher CO2 then.
    • Spring
    • Spring
    • Winter
  35. What was the climate like in the Cretaceous and over the last 2 million years?
    The Quaternary?
    • Hot, no ice caps, arid with sand dunes. Most of North America was covered by water. 
    • 2.6 million years ago.
  36. What is the difference between instrumental and proxy data?
    Instrument: Measures climate directly. Exact, but limited to the modern era.

    Proxy: Measures climate indirectly. Inexact, but can record the deep past.
  37. Why is the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increasing? 

    Why is this change linked with climate change?
    • Burning fossil fuels add great quantities of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
    •  
    • Water vapor and carbon dioxide absorb heat and are largely responsible for greenhouse effect of the atmosphere.

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