Geology Pt. 4
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Air is mostly composed of...
Why is the ozone important?
Where is it concentrated in the atmospehere?
- Can absorb 97-99% of harmful ultraviolet radiation.
Earth re-radiates radiation at _______ wave lengths. This process is called ________.
What are the major greenhouse gases?
These gases re-radiate energy towards ______ and heat _______.
- Carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere.
- the earth
- the lower atmosphere.
What is insolation?
Why is insolation responsible for the equator being hotter than the poles?
- The heat from the sun on the surface of the earth.
- Poles receive about half as much heat from the sun as the equator
_________ location is warmer in summer and cooler in winter.
_________ location is cooler in summer and warmer in winter.
- Inland location
- coastal location
_________ is the most important control of temperature.
Receipt of solar radiation
Winds blowing from the ocean onto the shore (coastal city) is a _________ coast.
Prevailing winds blowing from the land toward the ocean (inland city) is a _________ coast.
- Winward coast
- Leeward coast
Which of the following is NOT true of incoming solar radiation?
A.) It can be scattered.
B.) It can be absorbed and re-radiated at shorter wavelengths.
C.) It can be reflected.
D.) It can be absorbed and re-radiated at longer wavelengths.
B.) It can be absorbed and re-radiated at shorter wavelengths.
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
When is air saturated?
When it is filled with water vapor to 100% capacity.
Relative humidity is...
The ratio of vapor in air over the amount of vapor required for saturation at the given temperature.
What is the dew point temperature?
- Temperature needed to reach saturation.
- It is the temperature at which water vapor condenses to liquid
How are clouds classified?
_________ clouds are one of the chief precipitation producers.
Clouds of vertical development, called _________, that often produce rain showers and thunderstorms.
- Form and height.
what is atmospheric pressure?
less pressure results in _______ weather.
High pressure results in _______ weather.
Force exerted by the weight of the air above.
- cloudy and possibe precipitation
________ help us predict weather.
Changes in air pressure.
Air flows from areas of ______ pressure to areas of ______ pressure.
What are isobars?
Widely spaced isobars indicate _______ pressure gradient and _______ winds.
Closely spaced isobars indicate _______ steep pressure gradient and _______ winds.
Lines of equal air pressure
_________ can create a surface low, by starting upflow into the atmosphere.
What is the Coriolis effect?
Air is deflected around __________ in counter-clockwise direction on the _______ hemisphere and clockwise in the _______ hemisphere.
Deflection in wind direction due to earth's rotation.
- low pressure centers
- northern hemisphere
- southern hemisphere
What is a cyclone?
What are the associated winds in the Northern and Southern hemispheres?
A center of low pressure. Brings clouds and precipitation.
- North: inward (convergence) and counterclockwise
- South: Inward (convergence) and clockwise
What is an anticyclone?
What are the associated winds in the Northern hemisphere and the Southern hemisphere?
A center of high pressure. Brings fair weather.
- North: outward (divergence) and clockwise
- South: outward (divergence) and counterclockwise
What are the four main air masses classified by latitude and nature of surface in the source region? What weather do they bring?
- Polar (P)- cold. High latitudes.
- Tropical (T)- warm. Low latitudes.
- Nature of surface:
- Continental (c)- dry. Form over land.
- Maritime (m)- humid. Form over water.
What are the four fronts, what they are characterized by, and what weather they bring?
Warm front: warm air replaces cooler air. Light to moderate precipitation with lower clouds.
Cold front: cold air replaces warm air. More violent weather.
Stationary front: Flow of air on both sides is almost parallel to the line of the front. Surface position of front DOES NOT MOVE.
Occluded front: Active cold front overtakes a warm front. Complex weather.
In which directions do fronts move?
East. (except stationary fronts don't move)
How does a midlatitude cyclone form?
Start as a stationary front. A mountain, etc, distorts the front with warm air pushing north and cold air pushing south, forming it.
What are the three stages of formation of thunderstorms?
- Cumulus stage
- Mature stage
- Dissipating stage
What are the features of tornadoes?
In which direction do tornadoes move?
- Violent windstorm
- rotating column of air that extends downward from a cumulonimbus cloud.
- Low pressures inside causes air to rush in.
tornadoes are measured by the ________ scale.
Tornadoes are associated with huge thunderstorms called...
What is a hurricane?
Describe the different features.
Most violent storms on earth. Winds must be in excess of 74 mph.
Eyewall, eye, spiral rain bands
What three conditions are required to form a hurricane?
1. Pre-existing disturbance w/ thunderstorms.2. Warm ocean waters w/ temp. of at least 80 degrees F down to depth of 150 ft. 3. Light upper level winds that don't change much throughout the depth pf the atmosphere.
What are the three categories of damage caused by a hurricane?
Which causes the largest loss of life?
- Storm surge
- Wind damage
- Inland flooding from torrential rains.
Which type of severe weather has the steepest pressure gradient?
Carbon dioxide quantity is related to the season of ________. Plants absorb CO2 in _______, leading to lower CO2 after. Plants stop in ________ leading to higher CO2 then.
What was the climate like in the Cretaceous and over the last 2 million years?
- Hot, no ice caps, arid with sand dunes. Most of North America was covered by water.
- 2.6 million years ago.
What is the difference between instrumental and proxy data?
Instrument: Measures climate directly. Exact, but limited to the modern era.
Proxy: Measures climate indirectly. Inexact, but can record the deep past.
Why is the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increasing?
Why is this change linked with climate change?
- Burning fossil fuels add great quantities of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
- Water vapor and carbon dioxide absorb heat and are largely responsible for greenhouse effect of the atmosphere.
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