Unit 9 Kinetics, Thermodynamics, and Equilibrium

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solo_mani
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Unit 9 Kinetics, Thermodynamics, and Equilibrium
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2014-05-03 23:21:39
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  1. Activated complex
    The species that are formed and decomposed during the mechanism,also called the intermediate.
  2. Activation energy
    The energy that must be added to the reactants to allow them to react and form the activated complex.
  3. Catalyst
    A chemical that is added to a reaction to eliminate steps in the mechanism and increase the reaction rate and decrease the activation energy without being consumed itself.
  4. Effective collision
    A collision between reactant particles that results in a chemical reaction taking place.
  5. Enthalpy
    The total amount of potential energy stored in a substance.
  6. Endothermic
    A reaction that absorbs and stores energy from its surrounding environment.
  7. Entropy
    A system’s state of disorder. Entropy increases as temperature increases. Entropy increases as a substance is heated from a solid to a liquid to a gas
  8. Equilibrium
    A system where the rate of forward change is equal to the rate of the reverse change.
  9. Exothermic
    A reaction that releases stored energy into its surrounding environment.
  10. Favored
    A change in a thermodynamic property that contributes towards the reaction being spontaneous.
  11. Gibbs free energy
    The total amount of energy available in a system to do work. It is a combination of both enthalpy and entropy.
  12. Heat of reaction
    The net gain or loss of potential energy during a chemical reaction.
  13. Inhibitor
    A chemical that is added to a reaction to add steps to the mechanism and decrease the reaction rate and increase the activation energy without being consumed itself.
  14. Kinetics
    The study of reaction mechanism and reaction rate
  15. Mechanism
    The pathway or series of steps a reaction takes on its way to  forming product.
  16. Nonspontaneous
    A change that requires a constant input of energy to occur, or the change will stop or reverse itself.
  17. Reaction rate
    The amount of reactant consumed per unit of time.
  18. Spontaneous
    A change that, once started, continues the rest of the way on its own.
  19. Thermodynamics
    The study of heat flow during physical and chemical changes.
  20. Unfavored
    • A change in a thermodynamic property that contributes towards the reaction
    • being nonspontaneous.

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