MSA flashcards - 6-9.txt

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  1. Name the three types of primary cells found in bones
    • Osteoblasts (Building)
    • Osteoclasts (chewing)
    • Osteocytes
  2. What is the role of Osteoblasts?
    Synthesise new bone matrix
  3. What is the role of Osteoclasts?
    Resorption of bone (from monocytes)
  4. What is the role of Osteocytes?
    Help maintain homeostasis (mature osteoblasts)
  5. Bone is covered by a layer of connective tissue called the...
  6. The skeleton can be broken down into three main sections.
    • Axial Skeleton (down the middle)
    • Appendicular Skeleton – Further broken down to: Upper extremities & Lower extremities
  7. Name the Axial Skeleton
    Forms the longitudinal axis of the body and is made up of the skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs & hyoid
  8. Name the appendicular skeleton; upper extremities
    Scapula & clavicle of the upper limb (shoulder) girdle; humerus of the arm; radius & ulna of the forearm; carpel bones of the wrist; metacarpals of the palm; and Phalanges of the fingers.
  9. Name the appendicular skeleton; lower extremities
    Hipbones (coxal bones) of the lower limb (pelvic) girdle; femur of the thigh; tibia and fibula of the leg; tarsal bones of the ankle; metatarsals of the foot; phalanges of the toes.
  10. Name the 3 parts of a long bone.
    • Diaphysis
    • Epiphysis
    • Metaphysis
  11. Describe the diaphysis
    Tubular shaft of bone
  12. Describe the Epiphysis
    Knobby part at either end of the bone
  13. Describe the Metaphysis
    Epiphyseal (growth) plate (line) & adjacent bone trabeculae of spongy bone tissue.
  14. What is the tissue inside the medullary cavity?
    The marrow cavity – bone marrow (Found in the main shaft of long bones)
  15. What are the 5 functions of muscle?
    • Motion of a part of the body
    • Maintenance of posture
    • Heat production (thermogenesis)
    • Enhances venous return via muscle pumps.
  16. What are the 5 functions of bone?
    Balancing, movement, standing, grasping of objects & the manipulation of objects.
  17. What does Ossification mean?
    The formation of bone.
  18. What are two main types of ossification:
    • Intramembranous ossification – bone is formed from mesenchymal tissue, which is a network of connective tissue (inside)
    • Endochondrial ossification – bone developed by replacing cartilage model (outside)
  19. Describe a long bone
    Length is greater than it’s width with an epiphysis at each end.
  20. Give an example for a long bone |
    Femur, humerus, metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges
  21. Describe a Short bone
    Similar dimensions in length and width.
  22. Give an example of a short bone
    Carpal (wrist) and tarsal (ankle) bones.
  23. Describe a Flat bone
    Thin and curved
  24. Give an example of a flat bone
    Ribs, scapulae, sternum, pelvic bone and skull bones.
  25. Describe Irregular bones
    Do not fit neatly into any category.
  26. Give an example of irregular bones
    Vertebrae, hyoid, facial bones and hip bones.
  27. Describe Sesamoid bones
    Small bones embedded within certain tendons.
  28. Provide an example of a sesamoid bone
    Patella and pisiform bone.
  29. Describe accessory bones
    Commonly found in feet and skull
  30. Give an example of accessory bones
    Sutural and Wormain bones.
  31. What molecule is responsible (used for fuel) for movement.
    Calcium & ATP
  32. Why does rigormortis occur?
    Chemical changes in muscles after death causing the body to become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate. It is due to depletion of oxygen and calcium ions used for making ATP.
  33. Calcium released into the sarcoplasm as a result of a motor neuron impulse binds to what,
    • and results in what?
    • The calcium allows the actin to bind with the myosin which pulls the actin and causes the sarcomere to shorten & muscle to shorten.
    • Sliding filament theory
  34. What does ATP bind to and what is the result?
    ATP binds to the myosin and disengages from the actin so the muscle can return to its original position.
  35. Why do we eat food (besides from being hungry!)
    To provide our body with fuel to be used to produce energy and movement.
  36. What is an antagonistic pair?
    The name given to both sets of opposing muscles, for example biceps/triceps or quadriceps and hamstrings.
  37. What are Sarcomeres?
    Compartments along myofibrils separated by Z discs. They are made up of alternating thick and thin myofilaments called I-bands and A-bands.
  38. What is a Sarcolemma?
    Plasma membrane surrounding each muscle fibre which surrounds a quality of cytoplasm called sarcoplasm.
  39. What is a Foramen?
    An opening through which blood vessels, nerves or ligament pass.
  40. What is a Fossa?
    A depression in or on a bone
  41. What is a ligament?
    A short band of touch, flexible fibrous connective tissue which connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint.
  42. What is a tendon?
    A cord of connective tissue that attaches a muscle to the periosteum of a bone.
  43. 10. Put these muscle structures in order from largest to smallest: Myofiber, Muscle belly,
    • sarcomere, fascicle, myofibril, myofilament.
    • Muscle belly, Fasicle, myofiber, Myofibril, sarcomere, Myofilament
  44. Agonist
    Primary mover. Bulk of force
  45. Synergist
    Helps the action
  46. Motor unit
    Motor nerve + muscle fiber
  47. Antagonist
    Opposes agonist
  48. Fixators and Stabilises
    Reduce unwanted movement (Core muscle)
  49. Muscle getting longer. Lowering, gravity assisted
    Eccentric contraction
  50. Muscle getting shorter. Raising weight or gravity resisted
    Concentric contraction
  51. Muscle not moving.
    Isometric contraction
  52. Adduction
  53. Abduction
    Take away
  54. Flexion
    Bring forward (horizontal flexion & extension)
  55. Bring straight back
  56. Bring back
  57. Bring forward
  58. Rotate inwards
  59. Rotate backwards
  60. Supernation
    Rotate lower arm outwards without moving elbow or shoulder
  61. Longer under tension
  62. Shorter under tension
  63. Doesn’t move under tension
  64. Lats little helper
    Teres Major - Connects to bottom of scapular to the anterior of humerus
  65. What is the primary action of the rhomboid major?
    Retraction (adducts) and fixes the scapula
  66. What is the primary action of the sternocleidomastoid?
    Lateral flexion of the head. Alone will rotate the neck to the opposite side. Together with the other SCM) – will flex the neck.
  67. What is the primary action of the biceps brachii?
    Flexes the elbow and supinates the radioulnar joinet (forearm)
  68. What is the primary action of the triceps brachii?
    Extends the elbow
  69. What is the primary action of the brachioradialis?
    Flexes the elbow (esp in the neutral grip ie the hammering muscle).
  70. What is the primary action of the coracobrachialis?
    Adducts and flexes the shoulder
  71. Name the 3 hip bones from posteriorly to anteriorly
    Ilium, ischium and pubis.
  72. Which of these do you not find in Osseous tissue: Matrix, inorganic salts, collagenous fibres, periosteum.
  73. In endochondrial ossification what does bone replace?
    A cartilage model
  74. What are the primary hip flexors?
    The iliacus, the psoas major and the rectus femoris
  75. What is a sarcolemma?
    The cell membrane of a myofiber
  76. What is a sarcomere?
    The smallest functional unit of a muscle
  77. Name the three lateral stomach muscles, from superficial to deep.
    External obliques, internal obliques, transverse abdominis
  78. name the medial stomach muscles.
    Rectus abdominis
  79. How do weak abdominal muscles contribute to lower back pain?
    Strong core esp obliques and TA will spread weight of upper body around waist. If weak, weight will travel through lumbar spine
  80. What are the primary hip flexors?
    Psoas major, iliacus and rectus femoris.
  81. What are the primary lateral hip rotators?
    Gluteus maximus and the PGOGOQ complex
  82. What is the primary hip extensor?
    Gluteus maximus
  83. How do Gluteus maximus and gluteus medius/minimus act as antagonists?
    They rotate the hip in different directions.
  84. Name the quadricep muscles
    Rectus Femoris, vastus intermedius, vastaus lateralis & vastus medialis
  85. Name the two joint quadricep muscle
    Rectus femoris
  86. What is the origin of the hamstrings?
    The hamstrings all come from the ischial tuberosity
  87. Which hamstring has two heads?
    The biceps femoris.
  88. From superior to inferior order the following: adductor brevis, adductor longus, pectineus, psoas major
    Psoas major, Pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus
  89. What is the largest adductor?
    Adductor magnus
  90. Which calf muscle is a two joint
    Gastrocnemius crosses the ankle and the knee.
  91. Where does the soleus originate from?
    Soleus originates from the head of fibula and upper posterior tibia.
  92. What muscles are antagonists to the adductors?
    The abductors - gluteus medius & gluteus minimus.
  93. From least movement to most movement order the following – amphiarthrosis, synarthrosis, diarthrosis.
    • Synarthrosis – no movement
    • Amphiarthrosis – little movement
    • Disrthrosis – free movement – Synovial joints
    • SAD
  94. What joint is amphiarthrotic?
    Pubic symphysis and the intervertebral
  95. All fibrous joint are what?
    • Immovable – they are held together by dense fibrous tissue
    • All fibrous joints are synarthrotic and connected by fibers.
  96. All synovial joints are what?
    • Synovial joints are those articulations where the bones slide easily over each other.
    • Only in Upper limbs
  97. Name two uniaxial joints
    Hinge and pivot - elbow & knee
  98. What are proprioceptors found in muscles and joints?
    Proprioceptors are specialised receptors that relay information about the joint and muscle to the spine and brain.
  99. Name the three proprioceptors
    • Muscle spindles
    • Golgi tendon organs
    • Pacinian corpuscle
  100. What are bursae and what role do they have within a joint?
    Bursae are sacs filled with synovial fluid that reduce friction between tendons and other structures around the joint
  101. Aetiology
    The cause or origin of a disease or syndrome
  102. Risk factors
    Conditions or habits that will raise the risk of contracting a disease. Some are controllable, like diet and exervise, while others are not such as age and gender.
  103. Pathophysiology
    The changes that occur in the body that are cause dby a disease or syndrome. Can be physiological, mechanical (dislocations etc) or biochemical in nature (changes in lactate).
  104. Signs and Symptoms
    Can be subjective (headache or fatigue) or objective (high blood pressure)
  105. Diagnosis
    The use of signs and symptoms and the pathophysical changes to determine the disease or disorder.
  106. Describe a dislocation
    • A joint becomes dislocated when ligaments and muscles that stabilise them become ineffective. Obvious deformits, loss of movement, pain and swelling at joint.
    • Mostly occurs in synovial joints (ball and socket, hinge).
  107. Sprain
    • The tearing of a ligament or joint capsule. Often happens when a joint is forced beyond its normal range of motion.
    • PRICE method should be applied
  108. What does PRICE stand for?
    • Protection
    • Rest
    • Ice
    • Compression
    • Elevation
  109. What is bursitis?
    • Excessive use of a joint may lead to inflammation of the bursa sacs (provide cushioning between bones and tendons/muscles in a joint).
    • Treatment involves rest and modification of movement to that area.
  110. What is arthritis?
    A term for a joint disorder that involves inflammation. Causes can differ greatly from general wear and tear, autoimmune disorders and bacterials infactions.
  111. Name the three common types of arthritis
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Gout
  112. Describe rheumatoid arthritis
    Auto immune disease where the joint lining becomes inflammed.
  113. Describe Osteoarthritis
    Wear and tear. Degenerative joint disease in which the cartilage that covers bones deteriorates and causes bone to rub on bone rather than cartilage. Joint pain and loss of movement.
  114. Describe gout
    Primarily affects men. Caused due to a build up of uric acid. Affects small joints, specifically the big toe.
  115. What are spasms and cramps?
    • Involuntary contraction of a muscel or group of muscles.
    • Proprioceptors control the muscle tension by contracting (Muscles spindles) or relaxing (Golgi Tendon Organs).
  116. What do muscle spindles do?
    Contract muscles
  117. What do Golgi tendons do?
    Relax muscles
  118. What is a strain?
    • A tear in tendon or muscle.
    • Feel a tear
  119. What is a sprain?
    • A tear in ligament.
    • Hear a pop noise
  120. How are strains and sprains treated?
    Both use the PRICE method
  121. What is compartment syndrome?
    The fascia around muscle tightens and requires treatment
  122. What is Rhabdomyolysis?
    Rapid damage od skeletal muscle which results in muscle protein, myoglobin being released into the bloodstream and eventually into the kidneys & cause kidney damage.
  123. What is fibromyalgia?
    Muscle pain and fatigue. Specific tender points (18 of) and occurs mostly in women.
  124. What is musclar dystrophy?
    Muscular diseases that weaken the musculoskeletal system.
  125. Types of muscular dystrophy
    Duchenne (young boys-very aggressive type), Becker (Adult males) & Myotonic (females).
  126. What is cerebral Palsy
    non-progressive motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, mainly body movement. Usually due to premature birth.
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MSA flashcards - 6-9.txt
2014-05-04 07:05:00

MSA Lessons 6-9
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