MSA flashcards - 6-9.txt
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MSA flashcards - 6-9.txt
MSA Lessons 6-9
Name the three types of primary cells found in bones
What is the role of Osteoblasts?
Synthesise new bone matrix
What is the role of Osteoclasts?
Resorption of bone (from monocytes)
What is the role of Osteocytes?
Help maintain homeostasis (mature osteoblasts)
Bone is covered by a layer of connective tissue called the...
The skeleton can be broken down into three main sections.
Axial Skeleton (down the middle)
Appendicular Skeleton Further broken down to
: Upper extremities & Lower extremities
Name the Axial Skeleton
Forms the longitudinal axis of the body and is made up of the skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs & hyoid
Name the appendicular skeleton; upper extremities
Scapula & clavicle of the upper limb (shoulder) girdle; humerus of the arm; radius & ulna of the forearm; carpel bones of the wrist; metacarpals of the palm; and Phalanges of the fingers.
Name the appendicular skeleton; lower extremities
Hipbones (coxal bones) of the lower limb (pelvic) girdle; femur of the thigh; tibia and fibula of the leg; tarsal bones of the ankle; metatarsals of the foot; phalanges of the toes.
Name the 3 parts of a long bone.
Describe the diaphysis
Tubular shaft of bone
Describe the Epiphysis
Knobby part at either end of the bone
Describe the Metaphysis
Epiphyseal (growth) plate (line) & adjacent bone trabeculae of spongy bone tissue.
What is the tissue inside the medullary cavity?
The marrow cavity bone marrow (Found in the main shaft of long bones)
What are the 5 functions of muscle?
Motion of a part of the body
Maintenance of posture
Heat production (thermogenesis)
Enhances venous return via muscle pumps.
What are the 5 functions of bone?
Balancing, movement, standing, grasping of objects & the manipulation of objects.
What does Ossification mean?
The formation of bone.
What are two main types of ossification:
Intramembranous ossification bone is formed from mesenchymal tissue, which is a network of connective tissue (inside)
Endochondrial ossification bone developed by replacing cartilage model (outside)
Describe a long bone
Length is greater than its width with an epiphysis at each end.
Give an example for a long bone |
Femur, humerus, metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges
Describe a Short bone
Similar dimensions in length and width.
Give an example of a short bone
Carpal (wrist) and tarsal (ankle) bones.
Describe a Flat bone
Thin and curved
Give an example of a flat bone
Ribs, scapulae, sternum, pelvic bone and skull bones.
Describe Irregular bones
Do not fit neatly into any category.
Give an example of irregular bones
Vertebrae, hyoid, facial bones and hip bones.
Describe Sesamoid bones
Small bones embedded within certain tendons.
Provide an example of a sesamoid bone
Patella and pisiform bone.
Describe accessory bones
Commonly found in feet and skull
Give an example of accessory bones
Sutural and Wormain bones.
What molecule is responsible (used for fuel) for movement.
Calcium & ATP
Why does rigormortis occur?
Chemical changes in muscles after death causing the body to become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate. It is due to depletion of oxygen and calcium ions used for making ATP.
Calcium released into the sarcoplasm as a result of a motor neuron impulse binds to what,
and results in what?
The calcium allows the actin to bind with the myosin which pulls the actin and causes the sarcomere to shorten & muscle to shorten.
Sliding filament theory
What does ATP bind to and what is the result?
ATP binds to the myosin and disengages from the actin so the muscle can return to its original position.
Why do we eat food (besides from being hungry!)
To provide our body with fuel to be used to produce energy and movement.
What is an antagonistic pair?
The name given to both sets of opposing muscles, for example biceps/triceps or quadriceps and hamstrings.
What are Sarcomeres?
Compartments along myofibrils separated by Z discs. They are made up of alternating thick and thin myofilaments called I-bands and A-bands.
What is a Sarcolemma?
Plasma membrane surrounding each muscle fibre which surrounds a quality of cytoplasm called sarcoplasm.
What is a Foramen?
An opening through which blood vessels, nerves or ligament pass.
What is a Fossa?
A depression in or on a bone
What is a ligament?
A short band of touch, flexible fibrous connective tissue which connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint.
What is a tendon?
A cord of connective tissue that attaches a muscle to the periosteum of a bone.
10. Put these muscle structures in order from largest to smallest: Myofiber, Muscle belly,
sarcomere, fascicle, myofibril, myofilament.
Muscle belly, Fasicle, myofiber, Myofibril, sarcomere, Myofilament
Primary mover. Bulk of force
Helps the action
Motor nerve + muscle fiber
Fixators and Stabilises
Reduce unwanted movement (Core muscle)
Muscle getting longer. Lowering, gravity assisted
Muscle getting shorter. Raising weight or gravity resisted
Muscle not moving.
Bring forward (horizontal flexion & extension)
Bring straight back
Rotate lower arm outwards without moving elbow or shoulder
Longer under tension
Shorter under tension
Doesnt move under tension
Lats little helper
Teres Major - Connects to bottom of scapular to the anterior of humerus
What is the primary action of the rhomboid major?
Retraction (adducts) and fixes the scapula
What is the primary action of the sternocleidomastoid?
Lateral flexion of the head. Alone will rotate the neck to the opposite side. Together with the other SCM) will flex the neck.
What is the primary action of the biceps brachii?
Flexes the elbow and supinates the radioulnar joinet (forearm)
What is the primary action of the triceps brachii?
Extends the elbow
What is the primary action of the brachioradialis?
Flexes the elbow (esp in the neutral grip ie the hammering muscle).
What is the primary action of the coracobrachialis?
Adducts and flexes the shoulder
Name the 3 hip bones from posteriorly to anteriorly
Ilium, ischium and pubis.
Which of these do you not find in Osseous tissue: Matrix, inorganic salts, collagenous fibres, periosteum.
In endochondrial ossification what does bone replace?
A cartilage model
What are the primary hip flexors?
The iliacus, the psoas major and the rectus femoris
What is a sarcolemma?
The cell membrane of a myofiber
What is a sarcomere?
The smallest functional unit of a muscle
Name the three lateral stomach muscles, from superficial to deep.
External obliques, internal obliques, transverse abdominis
name the medial stomach muscles.
How do weak abdominal muscles contribute to lower back pain?
Strong core esp obliques and TA will spread weight of upper body around waist. If weak, weight will travel through lumbar spine
What are the primary hip flexors?
Psoas major, iliacus and rectus femoris.
What are the primary lateral hip rotators?
Gluteus maximus and the PGOGOQ complex
What is the primary hip extensor?
How do Gluteus maximus and gluteus medius/minimus act as antagonists?
They rotate the hip in different directions.
Name the quadricep muscles
Rectus Femoris, vastus intermedius, vastaus lateralis & vastus medialis
Name the two joint quadricep muscle
What is the origin of the hamstrings?
The hamstrings all come from the ischial tuberosity
Which hamstring has two heads?
The biceps femoris.
From superior to inferior order the following: adductor brevis, adductor longus, pectineus, psoas major
Psoas major, Pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus
What is the largest adductor?
Which calf muscle is a two joint
Gastrocnemius crosses the ankle and the knee.
Where does the soleus originate from?
Soleus originates from the head of fibula and upper posterior tibia.
What muscles are antagonists to the adductors?
The abductors - gluteus medius & gluteus minimus.
From least movement to most movement order the following amphiarthrosis, synarthrosis, diarthrosis.
Synarthrosis no movement
Amphiarthrosis little movement
Disrthrosis free movement Synovial joints
What joint is amphiarthrotic?
Pubic symphysis and the intervertebral
All fibrous joint are what?
Immovable they are held together by dense fibrous tissue
All fibrous joints are synarthrotic and connected by fibers.
All synovial joints are what?
Synovial joints are those articulations where the bones slide easily over each other.
Only in Upper limbs
Name two uniaxial joints
Hinge and pivot - elbow & knee
What are proprioceptors found in muscles and joints?
Proprioceptors are specialised receptors that relay information about the joint and muscle to the spine and brain.
Name the three proprioceptors
Golgi tendon organs
What are bursae and what role do they have within a joint?
Bursae are sacs filled with synovial fluid that reduce friction between tendons and other structures around the joint
The cause or origin of a disease or syndrome
Conditions or habits that will raise the risk of contracting a disease. Some are controllable, like diet and exervise, while others are not such as age and gender.
The changes that occur in the body that are cause dby a disease or syndrome. Can be physiological, mechanical (dislocations etc) or biochemical in nature (changes in lactate).
Signs and Symptoms
Can be subjective (headache or fatigue) or objective (high blood pressure)
The use of signs and symptoms and the pathophysical changes to determine the disease or disorder.
Describe a dislocation
A joint becomes dislocated when ligaments and muscles that stabilise them become ineffective. Obvious deformits, loss of movement, pain and swelling at joint.
Mostly occurs in synovial joints (ball and socket, hinge).
The tearing of a ligament or joint capsule. Often happens when a joint is forced beyond its normal range of motion.
PRICE method should be applied
What does PRICE stand for?
What is bursitis?
Excessive use of a joint may lead to inflammation of the bursa sacs (provide cushioning between bones and tendons/muscles in a joint).
Treatment involves rest and modification of movement to that area.
What is arthritis?
A term for a joint disorder that involves inflammation. Causes can differ greatly from general wear and tear, autoimmune disorders and bacterials infactions.
Name the three common types of arthritis
Describe rheumatoid arthritis
Auto immune disease where the joint lining becomes inflammed.
Wear and tear. Degenerative joint disease in which the cartilage that covers bones deteriorates and causes bone to rub on bone rather than cartilage. Joint pain and loss of movement.
Primarily affects men. Caused due to a build up of uric acid. Affects small joints, specifically the big toe.
What are spasms and cramps?
Involuntary contraction of a muscel or group of muscles.
Proprioceptors control the muscle tension by contracting (Muscles spindles) or relaxing (Golgi Tendon Organs).
What do muscle spindles do?
What do Golgi tendons do?
What is a strain?
A tear in tendon or muscle.
Feel a tear
What is a sprain?
A tear in ligament.
Hear a pop noise
How are strains and sprains treated?
Both use the PRICE method
What is compartment syndrome?
The fascia around muscle tightens and requires treatment
What is Rhabdomyolysis?
Rapid damage od skeletal muscle which results in muscle protein, myoglobin being released into the bloodstream and eventually into the kidneys & cause kidney damage.
What is fibromyalgia?
Muscle pain and fatigue. Specific tender points (18 of) and occurs mostly in women.
What is musclar dystrophy?
Muscular diseases that weaken the musculoskeletal system.
Types of muscular dystrophy
Duchenne (young boys-very aggressive type), Becker (Adult males) & Myotonic (females).
What is cerebral Palsy
non-progressive motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, mainly body movement. Usually due to premature birth.