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Describe behavior theory as it relates to students with E&BD.
- Behavioral theory is based on operant conditioning and understanding that behavior is related to various
- environmental stimuli that precede and follow it or the ABC’s of behavior.
Behavior- observable, measurable behavior
Consequences- natural or imposed as a result of a chosen behavior
Identify intervention strategies associated with behavior theory.
- Behavior management in the
- Functional Behavioral Assessment- Determine why the behavior is happening.
- Behavior Intervention Plans- Plans with clear expectations and measurable behavior goals.
- behavior support- immediate positive feedback; CONSTANT!
- teach-reteach model
for students to follow
- Expectations that are clear- and
Describe necessary components of a Functional Behavioral Assessment
- -Identify behavior that impedes learning
- -Explain how bx impedes learning
- -Frequency/Intensity/Duration of Behavior
- -Triggers- what sets student off?
- -team hypothesis-behavior function-why does Bx occur?-Enabling environments- what is allowing the Bx to continue?
- -Replacement Bx-what does team want Ss to do instead of problem Bx
- -Measurable Behavioral Goals/Objectives related to this plan
Describe the necessary components of a Behavioral Intervention Plan
-baseline measure of the problem behavior:
- frequency, duration, intensity
- -Must include data taken across activities, settings, people and times of the day.
- -Establish performance criteria
- -Intervention strategies to be used to alter antecedent events to prevent the occurrence of the behavior, teach individual alternative and adaptive behaviors to the student, and provide consequences for the targeted inappropriate behavior(s) and alternative acceptable behavior(s);
- -Schedule to measure the effectiveness of the interventions, including the frequency, duration and intensity of the targeted behaviors at scheduled intervals.
Describe cognitive theory as it relates to students with E&BD.
Thinking about past events, planning for the future, self-regulating, and learning new behaviors by observing models are some ways that cognitions affect behaviors. Cognitions contribute to E&BD when children ruminate about unhappy setbacks, anticipate a hopeless future, misinterpret the meaning of peers' actions and words, cannot think of non-aggressive responses to conflicts, misjudge the outcomes of behaviors they could perform or acquire maladaptive behaviors or emotions from models.
Identify cognitive deficits and distortions intervention strategies.
- -Interventions for Cognitive Deficits:
- -Encoding- teaching Ss to observe social info.
- -Response Access- Create successful new responses to challenges
- -Response Decision- Consider pos/neg responses to decisions
- - Enactment- performing the selected response.
- -Outcome Evaluation- Identify Effects of own Responses to self and others
Compare and contrast cognitive deficits versus cognitive distortions.
Cognitive deficits= the inability to think through stressful situations.
Cognitive distortions= inaccurate ways of viewing situations.
Describe sociological, ecological, and values-based/spiritual theories as they relate to students with
- Sociological perspective-
- SES: refer to levels of social resources under an individual's or family's control: occupation, education, and finances are the main resources of interest.
a groups's history, language, beliefs, customs, and technology.
a person who is diagnosed with ED will likely lose their SES and drift to lower SES w/o support/resources.
low SES or harmful societal settings cause
Ecological: goodness of fit:
if a student does not have "goodness of fit" in an ecosystem, their behavior is not likely to be viewed as "normal".
student setting can often determine Bx.
- Social: the ecosystem affects how students interact.
- Bx: bx that is OK in one ecosystem is not OK in another
- Moral Reasoning- moving from the fear of punishment to the desire to do for others.
Character Education: (1) Citizens generally know what values and character traits we want kids to manifest (2) children can and want to have "good" character (3) "good character" must be explicitly taught.
Spirituality - humans have an essential component that is associated with the mind and/or soul, but is distinct from the human body.
Identify intervention strategies associated with sociological, ecological, and values-based/spiritual
Ecological: observe the student across environments checking for "goodness of fit"; whenever possible alter the environment before moving the student.
Sociological: take into consideration a student's SES, Race/Ethnicity, or gender identity when giving instruction, choosing curriculum, or administering assessments.
Compare and contrast social drift and social causation explanations of E&BD among children of low socioeconomic status.
Social drift dictates that if a person is of middle or higher class and they develop an E&BD, without support, they are more likely to "drift" from their current SES into lower SES. It is likely because the behaviors that accompany E & BD are not acceptable within the realm of the professional world or even the working class to maintain employment and valuable social connections.
Social Causation states that a person's low SES is the cause of E & BD. In this instance the E & BD is modeled by poverty; a family is too concerned with having basic needs met so they can't worry about a student's behavior. Poor modeling may also be a contributor; if the adults around the student do not regulate their emotions children think this is acceptable behavior when upset. Barriers to success like poor quality of education, few employment opportunities, or system injustices like racism, sexism, homophobia, or high incarceration rates are also potential contributors to E&BD.
Compare and contrast the Institute of Medicine's three prevention categories.
- -Universal prevention consists of providing prevention activities to all students without targeting any individuals or groups. Some examples of universal prevention include school-wide and classroom management programs that teach prosocial competencies and conflict resolutions to all students.
- - Selective prevention activities target defined groups who are at risk for E&BD. Some examples of selective prevention include early intervention programs in the elementary schools for students who are in at-risk groups and suicide prevention for adolescents.
- -Indicated prevention activities specifically target students who exhibit problems that are early forms of E&BD.
- e.g.: Parental involvement, Ss enters counseling, school Bx coach, Ss gets Bx plan from school, CST, refer to SPED for possible eval.
Identify the importance of pre-referral interventions.
-The goal is to prevent a SPED referral!
-Pre-referral interventions provide a record of
what has been done to help the student.
- -Consultation- SPED teacher or other school psyche confers with gen ed. for Bx or learning support to try first:
- -Identify Ss problem
- -Problem support-what is supporting the ongoing behavior?
- -Intervention development
- -Commit to implementing interventions
Describe the continuum of placement options for students placed as ED.
- -Full inclusion in Gen. Ed.
- -Resource Room
- -Separate Class (Self-Contained)
Identify fundamental aspects of preventative classroom management.
- -Basic Classroom Management-
Identify the role of the mental health system in serving students with E&BD.
- Students may have outpatient Tx like counseling, family therapy, Bx coaching, Family Support Specialists, or medications. Students may also receive specialized classes like: anger management, substance abuse, communication, DBT, or other therapeutic interventions.
- Sometimes the groups will collaborate with members of each team (school/outpatient) attending IEP or CFT meetings.
- Outpatient services can also set a student up with RTC or hospitalization services.
Define the types of psychotropic drugs prescribed for children with E&BD.
- Stimulants: Ritalin
- Antidepressants: Prozac or Zoloft
- Antipsychotics: Risperdal
- Antimanic: Depakote
- Antianxiety: Xanax
- Antiagression: Clonadine
Describe the child and family welfare system.
: Foster placement (this is the last resort) when a parent or family is unable to care for a child.
The teaching-family model
: community-based therapeutic model
- In-home services: Case management and therapy or other Tx in the home.
Identify the connection between juvenile justice system and students with E&BD.
Students with E&BD have a higher likelihood of ending up in the juvenile justice system because of their inability or outright refusal to follow instructions or obey "normed" rules. The most common juvenile offenses are called status offenses, offenses that are illegal only for minors, such as curfew violations, truancy, or being beyond control of a parent.
Define the core values of a proposed system of care.
1. Child-centered and family focused- focus on the needs of the child and family
2. Community based- the child should not be removed from the home. Services, management, and decision-making remains at the community level.
3. Culturally competent- agencies are responsive to the cultural, racial, and ethnic differences of the populations they serve.