senses (smell, taste, and so on)

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senses (smell, taste, and so on)
2014-05-04 16:04:15

smell, hear, taste,....
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  1. the sense of smell
  2. dissolved chemicals that stimulate the olfactory receptors
  3. sensory neurons withing the olfactory organ
    Olfactory Receptor cells
  4. these nerve axons collect in the cribriform plate and carry impulses along the olfactory tract
    Olfactory nerve fibers
  5. Axons leaving the olfactory epithelium collect into bundles in here
    Cribiform plate
  6. the first synapse of smelling occurs here
    olfactory bulb
  7. axons leaving the olfactory bulb carrying impulses follow this to the cortex
    Olfactory tract
  8. The final place in the olfactory cortex the smells are integrated (x2)
    Limbic and hypothalumus
  9. the sense of taste
  10. the other name for gustatory receptors distributed across the tongue, throat, and larynx
    Taste receptors
  11. one type of taste sensation that is characterized by pleasant savory tastes.
  12. this taste sensation receptors are sensitive to amino acids and small peptides and nucleotides
  13. This sensory receptor of the pharynx sends information to the hypothalamus and affects water balance and the regulation of blood volume
    Water Receptors
  14. the primary taste sensations are
    sweet, salty, sour and bitter
  15. G proteins found in taste receptors that experience sweet, bitter and umami sensations are called
  16. gustatory cells are stimulated by
    dissolved chemicals
  17. Where are the sensory cells located for equilibrium and hearing?
    internal ear
  18. What are the receptor cells of the internal ear called
    hair cells
  19. Why are hair cells called "hair cells"
    the surfaces are covered with processes similar to cilia and microvilli
  20. What type of sensory receptor are hair cells
  21. what is the name of the support cells associated with the hair cells
  22. the ear is divided into three anatomical regions, what are they
    External, Middle, and Inner
  23. This structure consists of elastic cartilage and is used to collect sound waves and funnel them into the external acoustic meatus
  24. this is the visible portion of the ear which collects and directs sound waves toward the middle ear
    external ear
  25. this portion of the ear goes by two names that describe the air filled cavity separated from the external acoustic meatus by means of the tympanic membrane . what are the two names
    tympanum or eardrum
  26. this portion of the ear contains the sensory organs for hearing and equilibrium
    internal ear
  27. this is the passage way within the temporal bone thru which sound waves travel from the external ear to  the tympanic membrane
    external acoustic meatus
  28. these are glands which secret ear wax
    ceruminous glands
  29. what is the wax in the ear called
  30. what are the two main functions of the cerumen
    slow the growth of microorganisms and keep bugs and debris out of the ear
  31. this structure known as the eardrum lies at the end of the external auditory meatus and separates the external ear from the inner ear
    tympanic membrane
  32. this structure permits pressure equalization on either side of the tympanic membrane
    auditory tube
  33. what is a middle ear infection called
    otitis media
  34. the inner ear contains three auditory ossicle bones. in order what are they
    malleus, incus, and stapes
  35. this is a collection of fluid filled tubes and chambers inthe inner ear
    membranous labyrinth
  36. the membranous labyrinth contains fluid called
  37. this is a shell of dense bone that surrounds and protects the membranous labyrinth
    bony labyrinth
  38. the bony labyrinth is composed of three parts which are
    semicircular canals, the vesibule, and the cochlea
  39. this part of the inner ear provides equilibrium sensations by detecting rotation, gravity, and acceleration.
    vestibular complex
  40. this portion of the vestibular complex consists of three semicircular canals which detects rotational movements of the head in three different planes
    semicircular ducts
  41. this specific portion of the vestibular complex consists of two chambers with receptors that are sensitive to head position relative to gravity and linear acceleration
    utricle and saccule
  42. the movement of the stapes at the oval window generates pressure waves that stimulate hair cells at specific locations alonf the length of this structure and is used in hearing*
    cochlear duct
  43. the hair cells of the utricle and saccule are clustered in oval structures called
  44. in regards to the eye located in the retina, these see colors of black and white, highly sensitive, they enable us to see in dimly lit rooms, at twilight and pale moonlight.
  45. this part of the retina provides us with color vision, giving us sharper, clearer images. but these require more light to see.
  46. this light sensitive pigment is found inthe rods
  47. this light sensitive pigment is found in the cones
  48. this kind of vision is less than 20 ft. away and the lenses can actually change and adjust
  49. the region of the ampulla within the ear that contains the receptors is known as the
    crista ampullaris
  50. in regards tothe ear each crista ampullaris is bound to a flexible gelatinous structure called the
  51. the fluid found in the ear is called
  52. hair cell processes are bound to gelatinous mebrane called
    otolithic membrane
  53. the otolithic membrane contains densely packed calcium carbonate crystals called
  54. what are the accesory structures of the eye
    eyelids, eyelashes, and the epithelium of the eye
  55. this is a transparent area on the surface of the eye through which light travels to the inner eye
  56. this is the opening at the center of the colored iris which light passes into the eye after it passes the cornea
  57. this is the covering of the inner surface of the eyelids and outer surface of the eye
    Conjunctiva (palpebral [eyelids] and ocular [eye surface])
  58. this structure produces, distributes and removes tears.
    lacrimal apparatus
  59. the lacrimal apparatus is composed of what six structures
    lacrimal gland, tear ducts, lacrimal puncta, lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct.
  60. this structure produces tears that lubricate, nourish, and oxyginate the corneal cells
    lacrimal gland
  61. this is an antibacterial enzyme found in tears
  62. this structure delivers tears from the lacrimal gland to the space behind the upper eyelid
    tear ducts
  63. this structure consists of two small pores that drain the lacrimal lake
    lacrimal puncta
  64. this is a small canal that connects the lacrimal puncta to the lacrimal sac
    lacrimal canaliculi
  65. this structure is a small chamber that nestles within the lacrimla sulcus of the orbit
    lacrimal sac
  66. this structure orginates at the inferior tip of the lacrimal sac and allows tears to pass through it into the nasal cavity
    nasolacrimal duct
  67. what is the name of the disease which causes inflamation of the conjuctiva
    conjuctivitis aka pink eye
  68. the wall of the eye has three layers
    the fiberous, vascular, and inner
  69. the outer most layer of the eyeball which consists of the cornea and sclera is
    fibrous layer
  70. what are the three main functions of the fibrous layer
    supports/protects, attatchment sight for muscles, and contains the cornea
  71. this layer contains numerous blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, smooth muscles of the eye
    vascular layer aka uvea
  72. this is the inner most layer of the eye where the light energy is collected
    inner layer or retina
  73. what are the 4 functions of the vascular layer
    blood vessel route, regulating light, regulating the aqueous humor, controlling lens shape (essential in focusing)
  74. the vascular layer is composed of three structures
    iris, ciliary body, and choroid
  75. this stucture gives eyes their color and control the pupil size
  76. this structure acts as an anchor for the suspensory ligaments which hold the lens in place
    ciliary body
  77. this structure is covered by the sclera and has capillary network that delivers nutrients to the neutral tissue within the neutral layer.
  78. these cells within the eye are sensitive to light
  79. the ciliary body and lens divides the eye into two structures what are they
    ciliary muscle and processes
  80. the anterior cavity of the eye is divided into two structures
    anterior and posterior chambers
  81. what fluid is found in the anterior cavity
    aqueous humor
  82. what fluid is found in the posterior cavity
    vitreous humor