Ch. 11 Speech Perception
Card Set Information
Ch. 11 Speech Perception
Sensation & Perception
terms and concepts of speech perception
What is the stimulus for speech perception?
phonemics: analysis of how specific sounds distinguish words
What is a spectrogram?
a 3-dimensional display that plots time on the horizontal axis, frequency on the vertical axis, and amplitude on a color or gray scale
What is coarticulation?
production of one speech sound overlapping production of the next
What is variability?
the subtle differences in the articulation of speech
What is the vocal tract?
the airway above the larynx used for the production of speech (the vocal tract includes the oral tract and nasal tract)
Where is the palate?
the structure separating the oral tract from the nasal tract
where are the vocal folds?
just above the larynx (where the vocal chords are located)
Where does the larynx lead?
to the trachea which leads to the esophagus
What is the epiglottis?
the dividing muscle between the tongue and the larynx
What is the alveolar ridge?
the bone structure directly behind the top teeth wall that forms into a ridge-like structure
How is speech produced?
through respiration (breathing), phonation (vocal chords), and articulation (vocal tract)
How does speech articulation vary?
age, sex, and emotion
What is segmentation?
the actions of some symbols running together and others going farther apart (can occur from a southern draw, accent) (understanding when one word ends and another begins)
What are the special mechanisms enabling speech in humans?
broca's area (provides the ability to produce speech)
wernicke's area (provides the ability to understand speech)
How is speech unique to humans?
we have the ability to wait till later to convey a message to someone whereas animals only have immediacy in their conveyance of language (psycholinguists believe speech is unique to humans)
What is aphasia?
inability to perceive or produce speech
What is semanticity?
ability to derive meaning from speech production
What is arbitrariness?
conveying language meaning through repitition
What is recursion?
embedding pieces of a sentence inside other pieces of sentences
What is categorical perception?
listening to synthesize or categorize speech (we hear in categories) knowing when we hear one sound compared to another
How many consonants are we able to produce per second?
What do context effects involve?
top-down and bottom-up processing (confusing one sound for another based on what sounds you perceive)
What is the McGurk effect?
combining two different sounds (what you hear and what you see) to interpret a third completely different sound.
seeing 'gah', hearing 'bah', and interpreting 'dah'