Human Physiology Final - GI

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jdwein39
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Human Physiology Final - GI
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2014-05-04 18:59:31
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  1. Structure of the GI Tract Wall: 4 layers and what they do
    • Mucosa: epithelial cells with a variety of functions; muscle layer of circular and longitudinal muscle
    • Submucosa: Blood and lymph vessels; nerve plexus
    • Muscularis externa: circular and longitudinal muscle; nerve plexus
    • Serosa: outer connective tissue
  2. 3 Phases of GI Control
    • Cephalic: mouth nose
    • Gastric: stomach
    • Intestinal: intestines (duh)
  3. Exocrine/endocrine secretion and function of mouth and pharynx
    • Exocrine: salt + water, mucus, salivary amylase
    • Endocrine: None
    • Function: chewing, taste; anti-microbial action of saliva; lubrication; digestion of CHO by salivary amylase
  4. Upper vs lower esophageal sphincters: what kind of muscle?
    • Upper: skeletal
    • Lower: smooth
  5. Exocrine/endocrine secretion and function of esophagus
    • Exocrine: Mucus
    • Endocrine: None
    • Function: medullary control of swallowing
  6. Enterogasterones
    hormones that inhibit emptying of stomach
  7. Pepsin
    enzyme that digests protein
  8. Intrinsic factor
    Binds to Vit B12 in the stomach and keeps it from being digested in the stomach, so it can be absorbed later
  9. What stimulates gastrin?
    • Amino acids
    • Peptides
    • Para. NS
  10. What does gastrin do?
    • Stimulates acid secretion in stomach
    • Stimulates growth of stomach, pancreas, and small intestine
    • Stimulates motility in the stomach and intestines
  11. What stimulates ghrelin?
    Hunger
  12. What does ghrelin do?
    • Feeds back to hypothalamus to stimulate food intake
    • Stimulates secretion of GH
  13. Parietal Cells
    • In stomach
    • Secrete H+
    • H+ secreted in counter transport with K+ by an ATPase; coupled with HCO3- reabsorption
  14. What stimulates acid secretion by parietal cells?
    aa and peptides in stomach, histamine, ACh
  15. Chief cells
    • In Stomach
    • Secrete pepsinogen, which is converted to pepsin in an acidic environment
  16. 4 pancreatic enzymes that break down proteins
    • Trypsin
    • Chymotrypsin
    • Elastase
    • Carboxypeptidase
  17. Pancreatic enzyme that breaks down fats
    Lipase
  18. Pancreatic enzyme that breaks down CHOs
    Amylase
  19. Zymogen
    inactive form of an enzyme
  20. Insulin secreted by _____ cells in the ______
    Beta; pancreas
  21. Glucagon is secreted by _____ cells in the ________
    alpha; pancreas
  22. Somatostatin is secreted by _____ cells in the ______
    delta; pancreas
  23. Somatostatin in GI system
    • Inhibits insulin and glucagon release
    • Inhibits pancreatic hormone secretion
    • Inhibits things, basically
  24. _______ releases a bicarbonate-rich fluid to neutralize acidic chyme in the small intestine
    Pancreas
  25. 3 Parts of Small Intestine
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
  26. What stimulates CCK?
    aa, fatty acids
  27. What does CCK do?
    • Inhibits stomach acid secretion and motility
    • Stimulates pancreas exocrine secretions and growth
    • Stimulates contraction of the gallbladder
  28. What stimulates secretin?
    Acidity of chyme
  29. What does secretin do?
    • Inhibits stomach acid secretion and motility
    • Stimulates pancreas exocrine secretions and growth
  30. What stimulates GIP secretion?
    Glucose, fats
  31. What does GIP do?
    Stimulates insulin secretion
  32. Endocrine secretions from small intestine (3 hormones)
    • CCK
    • Secretin
    • GIP
  33. Migrating Myoelectric Complex
    • In small intestine
    • Repeating long waves of contraction (~2 ft) that move caudally down the tract
  34. 3 Portions of the Colon
    • Ascending
    • Transverse
    • Descending

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