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the knowledge, skills, and capabilities of indv that have economic value to an org
employees own their own human capital
Total Quality Improvements (TQM)
Means org use to modify the way they operate in order to be more successful
Six Sigma quality
A set of principles and practices whose core ideas include understanding customer needs, doing things right the first time, and striving for continuous improvement
Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost, quality, service, and speed.
Planned elimination of jobs
Contracting outside the org to have work done that formerly was done by internal employees.
A systematic way of bringing about and managing both organizational changes and changes on the indv level
change that occurs after external forces have already affected performance
Change initiated to take adv of targeted opportunities
software that allows workers to interface and share info with one another electronically
workers whose responsibilities extend beyond the physical execution of work to include planning, decision making, and problem solving
Human resources information system (HRIS)
A comp system that provides current and accurate data for purposes of control and decision making
lowers adm costs, increases productivity, speeds up response times, improves decision making, and tracks a comp talent
a situation in which an org asks or requires employees to take time off for either no pay or reduced pay
alt to downsizing
dismissing employees who are then hired by a leasing comp and contracting with that comp to lease back employees
Employment at will relationship
when an employee agrees to work for an employer for an unspecified period of time
the right of an employer to fire an employee wout giving a reason and the right of an employee to quit when they choose
requires org with more than 100 employees to give employees and their communities sixty days notice of any closure or layoff affecting fifty or more full-time employees
- setting an org’s rules
- documenting misconduct
- investigative interview
- progressive discipline
- positive discipline
- discharging employee
- due process
Equal employment opportunity (EEO)
the treatment of inv in all aspects of employment- hiring, promo, training etc.- in a fair and unbiased manner
inv of a minority race, women, older people, and those with disabilities who are covered by federal laws on equal employment opportunity
Equal Pay Act of 1963
Requires all employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act and others to provide equal work, regardless of sex
Fair employment practices (FEPs)
State and local laws governing equal employment opportunity that are often more comprehensive than federal laws and apply to small employers
Extend discrimination laws to employers with one or more workers
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures
A procedural doc published in the Federal Register to help employers comply with federal regulations vs discriminatory actions
the rejection of a significantly higher percentage of a protected class for employment, placement, or promo when compared with the successful, non protected class
protected class members receive unequal treatment or are evaluated by diff standards
the process of obtaining info about jobs by determining their duties, task, or activities
Methods for gathering and analyzing information for job analysis
- functional job analysis
- the position analysis system
- the critical incident method
- a task inventory analysis
- competency-based job analysis
a statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job to be performed
Parts of job description
- job title
- job identification
- job specifications
Problems with job descriptions
- if poorly written (vague terms), then they provide little guidance
- not updated when job duties and specifications change
- may violate the law by containing specifications not related to job success
- limit the scope of activities/reduce flexibility
a profile of a worker developed by studying an org’s top performers in order to recruit similar types of people
Recruitment process outsourcing (RPO)
the practice of outsourcing an org’s recruiting function to an outside firm
Internal labor market
labor markets in which workers are hired into entry level jobs and higher levels are filled within
a comp’s efforts to help existing and prospective workers understand why it is a desirable place to work
a comparative diagram that includes appraisal and assessment data to allow managers to easily see an employee’s actual and potential performance
a preference for hiring relatives of current employees
Realistic job preview (RJP)
informing applicants about all aspects of the job (desirable and undesirable facts)
the % of applicants from a recruitment source that make it to the next stage of the selection process
Applicant tracking system (ATS)
app that recruiters use to post job openings, screen resumes, contact potential candidates, and track the time and costs related to hiring people
the hierarchy of jobs a new employee might experience
lines of advancement in an occupational field within an org
change of assignment to a job at a higher level in the org
services that help terminated employees find a new job
extended time where an employee leave an org to pursue other activities and later returns to the job
Executive order 11246
Federal agencies and govt contractors with contracts of $10,000 or more
Prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in all employment practices
Govt contractors or subcontractors w 50 or more employees with contracts in excess of $50,000 develop affirmative action plans
Why is it unique about Executive Order 11246 compared to other executive orders?
It is unique because covered organizations with $50,000 or more in contracts MUST develop an affirmative action to remedy diversity issues.
Other Executive orders are just extended coverage of existing laws.
This requirement in EO 11246 is not covered in Title VII.
Enforcement of Executive Order 11246
Office of Federal Contracts Compliance Program (OFCCP)(DOL.GOV).
Parts of job description: job title
- indication of the duties
- level in the org hierarchy
Parts of job description: job identification
- departamental location of job
- the person whom the employee reports to
- the date of that the job description was last revised
- payroll/code number
- number of employees performing the job
- number of employees in the dept where the job is located
- code assigned to the job by ONET
- statement of the job
Parts of job description: job specifications
- specific knowledge, skills, and abilities of a person who is to perform a job needs
- physical demands
- conditions of the physical work environment/hazards
- interpersonal skills
Bona Fide Occupational qualification (BFOQ)
- Employers can give preference to hiring on the basis of gender, national origin, and religion when it is reasonably necessary for the normal operation of the enterprise.
- Made to change cultures, not perpetuate them
Bona Fide (real/genuine) Seniority Systems
Legal, even if they cause or perpetuate disparate impact (USA v. Teamsters)
Bona Fide Occupational qualification (BFOQ) NO!
- Customer preference
- Co worker preference
- Economic reasons
Bona Fide Occupational qualification (BFOQ) MAYBE!
- Moral reasons
- Title VII prohibits employment discrimination based on religion
- Employers needs to make a reasonable accommodation
- personal appearance
- religious conduct on the job
TWA v. Hardison
Employers had only to bear a minimum cost to show accommodation for religious purposes
Age discrimination Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967 as amended
- Public/private sector org with 20 or more employees
- It's unlawful to discriminate against an otherwise qualified indv age 40 or older with respect to age with respect to any employment practice
- Enforcement by the EEOC
- 97% of cases are filed under disparate treatment.
- All employers have to do is provide non discriminatory evidence
- Exceptions to the law are permitted when age is a bona fide occupational qualification
Older Workers Benefit Protection Act of 1990
- Prohibits employers from denying benefits to older employees except in limited circumstances
- Allows employers to ask older employees to waive their legal rights under the ADEA in exchange for compensation
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) as amended
- Public/private employers with 15 or more employees
- It is unlawful to discriminate against an otherwise qualified individual with respect to disability with respect to any employment practice
- Employers must accommodate the needs of the disabled up to the point of undue hardship- reasonable accommodation/undue hardship based upon economic resources, number of employees, size of facility,feasibility
- Determined on a case by case basis
- Large org were expected to do more than small org
- Enforcement by the EEOC
Definition of Disability
Any physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity (ADA Amendment of 2008)- without any consideration whether or not the disability can be corrected via medical measures
Once common practices no longer allowed under the ADA
- Pre-job offer inquiries regarding disabilities are illegal
- Pre-job offer medical exams are illegal
- Information about a disability must be maintained in a file separate from an employee's personnel file and can only be communicated to an individual who has the right to know
PAQ- Position Analysis Questionnaire
- Not recommended to require employees to write about their job. Sometimes, only 1 person holds the job, and they may not want to. Under employment-at-will law, and in the absence of a union membership, you can require it.
- The employee might not produce good information
Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and other characteristics required for successful performance.
What is the O*Net?
Occupational Information Network.
A new company can use it before doing a full-scale job analysis. They would still have to do a job analysis, because it will not exactly match the job in their organization.
The four parts of a job description are:
- I: Identification section
- II: Job Summary Statement
- III: Essential Job Functions
- IV: Job specification-KSAOCs.
those activities that impact the quality and quantity of the applicant pool and impacts the likelihood a candidate will accept a job offer
Where does recruitment start?
After identifying a job opening, the first step of recruitment is to very carefully articulate the characteristics of the individual being sought—in order to get desired KSAOCs as described in job description
Three questions to address in developing effective recruitment policy:
- 1. Who to recruit? Internal candidates(promotion within) or external candidates?
- 2. What information to communicate?
- 3. How to recruit?
Advantages of promotion from within (internal)
- A. Reward for excellent performance that can motivate
- B. Relatively cost effective
- C. Organizations know more about internal candidates then is learned about external candidates via normal selection processes.
- D. Internal candidates have a more realistic view of the job or the org than external candidates
- E. One promotion can lead to a chain of promotions
Disadvantages for promotion from within
- A. Lack of new ideas/innovation brought in by outsiders
- B. Conflict among those passed over for promotion
- C. More difficult to achieve affirmative action goals/diversity
Advantages of external promotion
- A. New ideas/innovation brought in by outsiders
- B. Less conflict than within promotion
- C. Easier to achieve affirmative action goals/diversity
Disadvantages of external promotion
- A. It can demotivate internal employees
- B. Not cost effective
- C. Organizations know little about external candidates
- D. External candidates do not have a realistic view of the job or the org
- E. It does not lead to a chain of promotions
What information to communicate?
- The more information the better
- Communicate information that is complete, accurate, realistic, and specific (CARS)
Why complete communication?
We want to attract a qualified pool of applicants
Why realistic communication?
- The Theory of Met Expectations (realism hypothesis)
- Realistic job previews RTP's
How to recruit?
- Employee referral
Advantages of employee referrals
- 1. Employees refer quality candidates-applicant pools are strong.
- 2. Relatively cost effective (even with referral bonuses).
- 3. Employees tend to provide referees with effective Realistic Job Previews
Disadvantages of employee referrals
- 1. Potential lack of ethnic diversity
- 2. Potential lack of innovation
- 3. Nepotism
Advantages of internet recruitment
- 1. Large applicant pools
- 2. Wide geographic distribution of job postings
- 3. Relatively low cost, almost free on an organization’s website.
- 4. Faster than U.S. mail and easier for candidates to respond
- 5. Ample space to communicate accurate, complete, specific, and realistic information
Disadvantages of internet recruitment
1. Too many over-and-under qualified applicants. And too many applicants.
Quantitative Assessment of relative effectiveness
Unwelcomed advances of a sexual nature, requests for a sexual favor, or physical or verbal abuse of a sexual nature
quid pro quo harassment
- Such is used as a condition of employment
- Such is used for the basis of an employment decision (promo, lay off)
- require a power relationship
hostile environment harassment
Such creates a hostile, threatening, or intimidating work environment that adversely alters the conditions of employment
Executive Order 13087
bars discrimination vs civilian employees of the federal govt based on their sexual orientation (except military)
Oncale v. Sundawner Offshore Services (1998)
Controversial because Title VII did not include sexual orientation
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)
- Employers are prohibited from knowingly hiring or retaining unauthorized alien on the job
- Employers with 4 or more employees are prohibited from discriminating in hiring or termination decision on the basis of national origin or citizenship
- Added as a form of gender discrimination under Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978
- Treat pregnancy as you treat other temporary disabilities
Family and Medical Leave Act
- Requires the eligible employees be granted 12 weeks unpaid leave during a twelve month period for:
- Birth or adoption of a child
- Care for an employee's serious illness
- Care for the serious illness of a dependent
- Employers can force employees to use their paid leave before using unpaid leave
- 12 months of work experience
- The 12 weeks do not need to be continuous