Lab Practical 2

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Lab Practical 2
2014-05-07 00:05:11

Labs 6-10
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  1. In Mitotic cell division, daughter cells have the ____ number of chromosomes as the parental cell had.
  2. In Meiosis cell division, daughter cells have ____ the number of chromosomes than the parental cells
  3. What happens in Meiosis 1, Prophase 1?
    Homologous chromosomes pair and crossing over happens
  4. What happens in Meiosis 1, Metaphase 1?
    Pairs align at the equator independently
  5. What happens in Meiosis 1, Anaphase 1?
    Homologous pairs separate
  6. What happens in Meiosis 1, Telophase 1?
    2 daughter cells have 2 chromosomes with 2 chromatids
  7. What happens in Meiosis 2, Prophase 2?
    Cells have one chromosome from each homologous pair
  8. What happens in Meiosis 2, Metaphase 2?
    One pair of chromatids align at equator
  9. What happens in Meiosis 2, Anaphase 2?
    Sister chromatids separate and become daughter chromosomes
  10. What happens in Meiosis 2, Telophase 2?
    4 haploid daughter cells are produced
  11. What happens in Prophase of Mitosis?
    • Centrosomes duplicate
    • Chromatin condense into chromosomes
    • Nuclear envelope fragments
    • Nucleolus disappear
    • duplicate chromosomes become visible
    • centrosomes move apart and spindle starts to form
  12. What happens in Prometaphase of Mitosis?
    • Kinetochore of each chromatid is attached to a kinetechore spindle fiber
    • Polar spindle fibers stretch form each spindle pole and overlap
  13. What happens in Metaphase of Mitosis?
    • Centromeres of duplicated chromsomes are aligned at the metaphase plate (uniform)
    • Kinetochore spindle fibers attached to the sister chromatids come from opposite spindle poles
  14. What happens in Anaphase of Mitosis?
    • Sister chromatids part and become daughter chromosomes that move toward spindle poles
    • Remains diploid
  15. What happens in Telophase of Mitosis?
    2 diploid daughter cells are formed
  16. During what stage of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur?
    S phase in Interphase
  17. By what process does the cytoplasm of a human cell separate?
    Cleavage furrow
  18. early prophase of mitosis
  19. prophase of mitosis
  20. prometaphase of mitosis
  21. metaphase of mitosis
  22. anaphase of mitosis
  23. telophase of mitosis
  24. prophase 1 of meiosis
  25. metaphase 1 meiosis
  26. anaphase 1 of meiosis
  27. interkinesis of meiosis
  28. prophase 2 of meiosis
  29. metaphase 2 of meiosis
  30. anaphase 2 of meiosis
  31. telophase 2 of meiosis
  32. cytokinesis of meiosis
  33. What term refers to the production of an egg?
  34. What term refers to the production of a sperm?
  35. During which type of gametogenesis would you see polar bodies?
  36. Term for vegetative/body cells
    Soma/somatic line
  37. Term for reproductive cells
    Germinal/germ line
  38. How does meiosis create genetic variation?
    • Crossing over
    • Independent assortment
  39. A cross gives a 3:1 phenotypic ratio. What are the genotypes of the parents?
  40. According to Mendel's law of segregation, parents who both have the genotype Aa would produce what type of gametes?
  41. If your performed the Drosophila cross LL x ll what phenotypic ratio would expect among the offspring?
    All long
  42. According to Mendel's law of independent assortment, how many different types of gametes would an AaBb parent have? An AABb parent?
    4; 2
  43. What is the genotype of a homozygous long-winged fly that is heterozygous for gray body color?
  44. What is the expected pheotype ratio among offspring if both parents are dihybrids?
  45. Alleles
    different forms of a gene
  46. Law of segregation
    Each organism contains two alleles for each trait, and the alleles segregate during the formation of gametes. Each gamete then contains only one alleles for each trait. When fertilization occurs, the new organism has two alleles for each trait, one from each parent
  47. Law of independent assortment
    Members of an allelic pair segregate (assort) independently of members of another allelic pair. Therefore, all possible combinations of alleles can occur in the gametes.
  48. What three molecules are nucleotides composed of?
    • Deoxyribose (5 carbon sugar)
    • Phosphate
    • Nitrogen-containing base
  49. What type of sugar does RNA have?
  50. What are the bases in DNA?
    Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
  51. What are the bases in RNA?
    Adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine
  52. What happens during transcription?
    mRNA is made complementary to one of the DNA strands. This mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
  53. What happens during translation?
    tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosome and they join in the order prescribed by mRNA
  54. In translation, what bases go with what?
    • T - A
    • A - U
    • C - G
    • G - C
  55. Codon
    The three bases in mRNA that stand for the same sequence of amino acids as does DNA
  56. Anticodon
    The corresponding amino acids in tRNA
  57. In the DNA ladder structure, what makes up the sides of the ladder?
    Sugar phosphate
  58. In the DNA ladder structure, what makes up the rungs of the ladder?
    Hydrogen bonded bases
  59. What type of enzyme is used to fragment DNA?
  60. What are the steps of DNA fingerprinting?
    • 1. Fragmentation of usually a selected portion of the genome. The DNA is digested with restriction enzymes and the result is different sized fragments unique to the individual.
    • 2. Gel electrophoresis. The DNA fragments are separated according to their length, and the result is a DNA pattern unique to the individual
    • 3. Analysis of the DNA pattern. The pattern is revealed by using radioactive probes or by staining.
  61. During translation, what type of RNA carries amino acids to the ribosomes?
  62. What roles does mRNA play in transcription and translation?
    The correct sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide is the message the mRNA carries as it leaves the nucleus and proceeds to the ribosomes.
  63. What is the Hardy Weinburg Principle?
    p+ 2pq + q2 = 1
  64. In the Hardy Weinburg Principle, what does the p2 stand for?
    Homozygous dominant genotype (AA)
  65. In the Hardy Weinburg Principle, what does the pq stand for?
    Heterozygous genotype (Aa)
  66. In the Hardy Weinburg Principle, what does the q2 stand for?
    Homozygous recessive genotype (aa)
  67. What is Hardy Weinburg Equilibrium?
    • No mutation
    • No natural selection
    • No immigration/emigration
    • Random mating
    • No genetic drift (random change in allele frequency)