BC Science 10 Chapter 2
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BC Science 10 Chapter 2
The break down of dead organic matter
An organism that eats other organisms
Organisms that break down waste or dead organisms and change them into nutrients
Food chain means?
Flow of energy from plant to animal and animal to animal
Food pyramid means?
The loss of energy from each trophic level to the next
Food web means?
The feeding relationships within an ecosystem
Organisms that produce carbohydrates during photosynthesis
Trophic level means?
Steps in a food chain that show feeding and niche relationships
Cellular respiration means?
The process of releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
When nitrogen is returned to the atmosphere
The process of turning ammonium into nitrate
When carbon dioxide enters the leaves of plants and reacts with water to make carbohydrates and oxygen
When soil and decaying organic matter accumulate in layers to make sedimentary rock
When rocks are broken down into smaller fragments
The gradual build up of synthetic and organic chemicals
The use of organisms to break down chemical pollutants
Heavy metals mean?
Metallic elements with high density's
Keystone species means?
Species that greatly affect population numbers and health of an ecosystem
Parts per million (ppm) means?
A measurement of chemical accumulation; 1 ppm means 1 particle mixed with 999 999 other particules
PCB's (polychlorinated biphenyls) means?
Synthetic chemicals containing chlorine used to make plastics and other industrial products
What is biomass?
Total of living plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria in anarea
Why are plants called producers?
They "produce" food during photosynthesis, in the form of carbohyrates
What role do herbivores have in a food pyramid?
The more herbivores, the more carnivores that can be supported
What happens to the food energy taken in by an organism?
Supports cellular respiration, growth, reproduction, waste matter, and death
How much energy is lost from producers to secondary consumers?
99% energy lost
What is the main difference between food chain and food webs?
Webs showing feeding relationship and chains show energy
Why do you not gain weight every time you eat?
Food is turned to energy
What is a nutrient store?
Accumulation of nutrients in the atmosphere, ocean, and land masses
How can human activities affect a nitrogen cycle?
Increase of nutrients before they can be replenished
Where is carbon stored on earth?
Land vegetation, ocean plants,land and ocean animals, atmosphere, coal deposits, and oil and gas deposit's
What human activities have an affect on the carbon cycle?
Driving vehicles, urban expansions, an burning fossil fuels
What is nitrogen fixation?
The process of nitrogen gas being converted into compounds containing nitrate or ammonium
Where does nitrogen fixation take place?
In the atmosphere, soil, and in water bodies
What human activities contribute excess nitrogen into ecosystems?
Power plants, sewage treatment, clearing forests, and burning grasslands
What is acid precipitation?
Dissolved nitrogen compounds in clouds fall back to earth as rain
What is eutrophication?
When excess nitrogen result in increased plant production and decay
How is phosphorus stored in ecosystems?
As phosphate in phosphate rocks and sediments on the ocean floor
What human activities contribute to excess phosphate in ecosystems?
Mining and treated sewage
In what form is carbon stored in the ocean?
In its dissolved form or carbon dioxide
How can lightning benefit an ecosystem?
Fixing the nitrogen in the atmosphere
How does a chemical bio accumulate in an organism?
Going into the fats
What are Persistent Organic Pollutants?
Carbon containing compounds
In the past, how was lead introduced to ecosystems?
Insecticides, paint, gasoline, batteries, and electronics
How does Cadmium enter the environment?
Rock weathering, volcanoes, and forest fires
What are some natural sources of mercury?
Volcanoes, geothermal springs, and rock weathering
Why are amphibians disappearing?
Prolonged drought, ultraviolet radiation, habitat loss, pollution, over hunting, parasites, and disease caused by viruses and fungi
What effect does DDT have on humans?
On our blood from mosquitoes with disease, and from the food we eat
What are three health effects of methylmercury?
Affects nerve cells, the heart, kidneys, lungs, and suppresses the immune system