bio 214 final

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bio 214 final
2014-05-13 18:33:09
cell bio

final questions
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  1. site of phospholipid synthesis and calcium storage
    smooth ER
  2. organizing center for microtubules
  3. site of degradation of proteins and cellular components
  4. site where proteins are heavily modified with carbohydrates
    Golgi apparatus
  5. generates the ATP needed for cell activities
  6. contains pores through which protein and RNA can be transferred
  7. defines the boundary of all cells
    plasma membrane
  8. initial site of synthesis specifically for membrane proteins
    rough ER
  9. connects the cytoplasms of two different animal cells
    gap junction
  10. used in translating an RNA into a protein
  11. what limits the size of cells
    the need for a surface area of sufficient area to support he cells metabolic needs
  12. in microscopy, the term "resolution" refers to what?
    the ability to distinguish two different points as separate objects
  13. what is most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted?
    ER->Golgi->vesicles that fuse w/plasma membrane
  14. In order for a protein to be an integral membrane protein it would have to be
    amphipathic, with at least one hydrophobic region
  15. the reactivity of an atom depends on the
    presence of unpaired electrons in valence shell of the atom
  16. Nitrogen forms 3 covalent bonds. How many electrons are found in its outermost shell?
  17. Phosphorus-32 (radioactive) has_____ than phosphorus-35
    3 few neutrons
  18. when two atoms have the same electronegativity, they will interact to form_____
    Non-Polar Covalent Bonds
  19. Water is able to form hydrogen bonds because
    bonds that hold together the atoms in a water molecule are polar covalent bonds
  20. What is the reason why hydrocarbons are not soluble in water?
    the majority of their bonds are nonpolar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages
  21. what do isomers have in common?
    molecular mass
  22. what bon type stabilizes Alpha helices and beta sheets secondary structures in proteins?
    hydrogen bonds
  23. ATP generally energizes a cellular process by:
    coupling free energy released by ATP hydrolysis to energy needed by other reactions
  24. A molecule with the chemical formula C16H32O16 is probably a:
  25. Saturated fatty acids
    have a higher ratio of hydrogen to carbon than do unsaturated fatty acids
  26. The tertiary structure of a protein is the
    unique three-dimensional shape of the fully folded polypeptide
  27. Which one of the following functional groups decreases the solubility of organic compounds in water?
  28. Polysaccharides serve what important functions in cells?
    energy storage
  29. A nucleotide is made of which of the following chemical components?
    a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a ribose sugar
  30. Which of the following would probably not be affected when a protein is denatured?
    primary structure
  31. Polymers are broken down into monomers by what general process?
  32. How does the infectious form of prion that causes mad cow disease, PrPc, differ from the non-infectious form?
    The infectious form has a different 2 and 3 structure
  33. what type of reaction builds up biological polymers?
  34. the mechanism of enzyme action is:
    lowering the energy of activation for a reaction
  35. Cells are constantly using energy to build up things. Where does this energy come from?
    Catabolic reactions
  36. Which of these statements about enzyme inhibitors is true?
    A noncompetitive inhibitor changes the shape of the active site
  37. In a lab experiment you discover that an enzyme-catalyzed reaction has a change G of -20kcal/mol. If you double the amount of enzyme in the rxn, what will be the change G for the new rxn?
    -20 kcal/mol
  38. The active site of an enzyme is the region that_____
    is involved in the catalytic rxn of the enzyme
  39. THe two strands of DNA are bonded together by hydrogen bonds btwn what?
    opposite complementary nitrogenous bases
  40. When two atoms bond together by sharing a pair of electrons unequally which results in partial charge distribution, the bond is considered what?
    polar covalent
  41. Why is there so much energy in an ATP molecule?
    the negative charges are crowded in the 3 high energy phosphate bonds
  42. The quartenary structure of a protein is the:
    overall protein structure resulting from the aggregation of two or more polypeptide subunits
  43. Steroids are classified as lipids, and are all derived from what common precursor molecule?
  44. How many hydroxyl groups are on a glycerol molecule?
  45. How does a competitive inhibitor affect the typical graph of rxn rate versus substrate concentration in an enzyme saturation experiment?
    increases Km but leaves Vmax unchanged
  46. What specific type of macromolecule is needed to form the membrane structures?
  47. what is entropy?
    state of disorder
  48. The binding of an allosteric inhibitor to an enzyme causes the rate of product formation by the enzyme to decrease. Which best explains why this decrease occurs?
    the allosteric inhibitor binds to allosteric site which causes a structural change in the enzyme that prevents the substrate from binding at the active site
  49. The fluid mosaic model of the membrane proposed that
    membranes consist of protein molecules embedded in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids
  50. In order forĀ a protein to be an integral membrane protein it would have to be
    amphipathic, with at least one hydrophobic region
  51. what kinds of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily?
    small and hydrophobic
  52. which of the following membrane activities require energy from ATP hydrolysis?
    Na+ ions moving out of a mammalian cell bathed in physiological saline
  53. white blood cells engulf bacteria through what process?
  54. the sodium-potassium pump is called an electrogenic pump because it
    contributes to the membrane potential
  55. ions diffuse across membranes through specific ion channels
    down their electrochemical gradients
  56. The sodium-potassium pump in animal cells requires cytoplasmic ATP to pump ions across the plasma membrane. When the proteins of the pump are first synthesized in the rough ER, what side of the ER membrane will the ATP binding site be on?
    It will be on the cytoplasmic side of the ER
  57. THe liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and therefore abundant in liver cells?
    smooth ER
  58. Transporters, in contrast to channels, work by ________
    specific binding to solutes
  59. If Na+ channels are opened in a cell that was previously at rest, how will the resting membrane potential be affected?
    it becomes more positive
  60. Signal sequences that direct proteins to the correct compartment are_____________
    encoded in the amino acid sequence and sufficient for targeting a protein to its correct destination
  61. What is the role of the nuclear localization sequence in a nuclear protein?
    It is bound by cytoplasmic proteins that direct the nuclear protein to the nuclear pore.
  62. An individual transport vesicle_________
    will fuse with only one type of membrane
  63. location of signal-recognition particle
  64. location of protein translocator
    ER membrane
  65. location of mRNA
  66. location of SRP receptor?
    ER membrane
  67. location of active site of signal peptidase
    ER lumen
  68. Which of the following statements about the protein quality control system in the ER is false?
    proteins that are misfolded are degraded in the ER lumen
  69. Vesicles from the ER enter the Golgi at the
    cis Golgi network
  70. Which of the following statement about the functions of the centrosome is false?
    microtubules emanating from the centrosome have alternating polarity such that some have their plus end attached to the centrosome while others have their minus end attached to the centrosome
  71. Which of the following statement regarding dynamic instability is false?
    the newly freed tubulin dimers from a shrinking microtubule can be immediately captured by growing microtubules and added to their plus end
  72. For both actin and microtubule polymerization, nucleotide hydrolysis is important for_______
    decreasing the binding strength between subunits on filaments
  73. which of the following conditions is likely to decrease the likelihood of skeletal muscle contraction
    addition of a rug that blocks Ca2+ binding to troponin
  74. Which of the following contain he 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules, consisting of nine doublets surrounding a pair of singles
    both flagella and motile cilia
  75. movement of vesicles within the cell depends on what cellular structures?
    microtubules and motor proteins
  76. 4 things you'll find in a plant cell
    • cell wall
    • central vacuole
    • chloroplasts
    • mitochrondria
  77. 2 things associated with a prokaryotic cell
    • circular DNA
    • bacterium