Biology: Vertebrate

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Biology: Vertebrate
2014-05-05 00:11:02
Biology Chordata Vertebrate

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  1. What three Subphylum's make up the Chordata?
    • Cephalochordates
    • Urochordates
    • Vertebrates
  2. The ______ subphylum has no jaw
  3. The _______ subphylum is jawed mouth
  4. What two species make up the Agnatha superclass?
    Hagfish and Lamprey
  5. What is the jaw evolution?
    Modification of gill arches to new function
  6. What two things did the jaw evolution allow to happen?
    • Exploitation of new food sources 
    • Changed feeding behaviors
  7. Class Chondrichthyes (______) have a ______________ tail, and _____ scales.
    Shark; heterocercal; Placiod
  8. Eggs within the mother are ____________?
  9. Egg laying are _________?
  10. Live birth is ________?
  11. Sharks have a __ chambered heart
  12. Sharks have a ________ gut, and intestine have a _____ valve that helps by increasing _______ area.
    complete; spiral; surface
  13. Sharks sensory canals are ______ line and the receptors are ________ organs
    Lateral; ampullary
  14. Skate is ______ (egg laying) had ____ fin, fleshy ____ and are often ___ (size)
    Oviparous; dorsal; tail; small
  15. Eagle Ray are _______ (live birth), have no _____ fin, _____ tail and are often ____ (size)
    Viviparous; dorsal; narrow; large
  16. The electric organs are _____ muscles and can deliver up to ___ volts.
    Modified muscles; 200
  17. Superclass Gnathostomata are the ____ fishes
  18. Osteichthyes(bony fishes) have a ____ skeleton, ____-____ (gas filled pouch), ______ over gill slits and __ chambered heart with ___ circulation.
    bony skeleton' swim-bladder; operculum; 2; single
  19. The swim bladder allows fish to control ______
  20. Teleost fish have ____ or _____ scales
    Cycloid; Ctenoid
  21. ______ tails and increased _________ allow for fast swimming
    Homocercal; musculature
  22. Moray eel has a _____ jaw that sits in the back or the throat and pulls food down to chew.
    Pharyngeal Jaw
  23. Lung fish have a __ chambered heart, and can have ____ or _____ circulation
    3; single or double
  24. A ______ has four limbs
  25. Class Amphibia has a __ chambered heart with ____ circulation, is ________ (cold-blooded).
    3; double;  Ectothermic
  26. In Class Amphibia the transition to land is incomplete because of theses three reasons
    • Eggs only have jelly like membrane covering 
    • Metamorphosis 
    • No scales, moist skin with glands
  27. Respiration in Class Amphibia is via ___, ____ and ____
    skin, lungs and gills
  28. What three orders make up class Amphibia?
    Caecilians, newts and salamanders, frogs and toads
  29. Caecilians are _____ (snake like), ______ (fossorial) or ____ (water).
    Limbless; burrowing or aquatic
  30. Newts and salamanders have __ limbs, have respiration via ____, ____,___ and have ___ fertilization with _____ (packets of sperm)
    4; gills, lungs, skin; spermatophores
  31. _____________ or neoteny is the retention os juvenile traits in adults
  32. Frogs and toad have moos skin with glands that consists of ___________, ______ glands and ________ glands
    Chromatophore; poison; mucous
  33. ________ is the joining of male and females in toads and frogs during reproduction
  34. Parental care in forge and toads consist of
    • Dorsal pouches 
    • brooding pouches
    • attaching to adult
    • vocal pouch
  35. What allowed reptiles to be successful on land?
    • Amniotic egg
    • scales
    • Thoracic breathing 
    • Kidneys 
    • Internal fertilization 
    • Mor efficient circulatory system 
    • Lungs for respiration
  36. Amniotic eggs are made of _____, _______ and ______ membranes
    amnion; chorion and allantois
  37. Anapsids skull has __ opening behind eye sockets. Synapsids have ___ pair of openings. Diapsids have ____ openings in skull.
    no; one; two
  38. Class Reptile has horny ____ covering the epidermis, __ paired limbs and __ toes. __ chambered hearts, _________ (body temp) and ________ egg.
    scales; 2; 5; 3; ectothermic; amniotic egg
  39. Turtles and tortoises have enclosed in ___ fused to _______. No _____, ______(feeding).
    shell; vertebrae; teeth; omnivores
  40. Lepidosauria have a highly kinetic ____ with flexible ____.
    Skull; joints
  41. Reproduction is internal in lizards and snakes due to _______
  42. Snakes are _______ (feet), left ___ reduced, no outer ___, no moveable ______ and are _______(feeding type)
    limbless; lung; ears; eyelids; predatory
  43. Class Aves have ________ are modified for flight, body covered with ______, horny ___ and no ____. __ chambered heart, internal ________.
    forelimbs; feathers; beaks; teeth; 4; fertilization
  44. Adaptations for flight are: _____ , ______ and ______
    feathers; reduction of organs; hollow bones
  45. Birds have a high ______ rate because they are ________.
    metabolic; endothermic
  46. Aves have a complex nervous system because of a large ______, complex _____, and excellent _____ and _____.
    cerebrum, behavior, hearing and vision
  47. Annual cycles of birds include ____, _________, and _____
    molt; migration and breeding
  48. Cues for navigation during migration in birds:
    Landmarks, sum compass, star compass, magnetic compass
  49. Human evolution in primates includes: _______ hands, large ____, _______ vision and complex social _____
    grasping; brains; binocular; behavior
  50. General requirements of all organisms:
    - Source of ______
    -Source fo ______
    -interaction with ____________
    -_______ continuity
    energy (feeding); carbon (oxygen); boundary(shell, fur, feathers); environment(nervous system); genetic (life cycles)
  51. An example of convergent evolution
    animals with specialized poisons for predation ex: spiders, rattlesnakes, hydra
  52. Example of Divergent evolution:
    Mammalian dentition
  53. One benefit of sexual reproduction?
    Genetic diversity among offspring
  54. One benefit of asexual reproduction?
    Don't have to rely on a mate
  55. _______ is the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment.
  56. _____-species interactions are _____
    Intra; within
  57. ___-species interaction are _______
    Inter; between
  58. ____ factors are living
  59. ______ factors are physical or chemical
  60. Groups of organisms are organized into _________(many species) -->composed of--> ___________(one species)--> composed of--> _____________
    Communities; Populations; Individuals
  61. A ______ is composed of communities plus the physical environment
  62. A ____ has unique climate and biological feature. It may include >1 ecosystem
  63. The _________ includes all the biomes on earth
  64. __________ ______ studies the flow of energy and chemical compounds through and ecosystem.
    Ecosystem Ecology
  65. Example of a study of an individual:
    Life cycle and annual cycle, mating behavior, egg production
  66. Example of a population study:
    How they are finding resources; migration patterns
  67. Examples of a community study:
    Predators, weather effects, fungus ratio
  68. Examples of ecosystem study:
    Death of trees affects of loss of habitat; loss of food source
  69. Examples of a Biome study:
    Temperate coniferous forest
  70. ____ energy determines temperature?
    Solar (the sun)
  71. __ _________ determines aridity and precipitation?
    Air circulation
  72. The _____ _____ : because the earth is rotates and is round air moving over it seems to turn.
    Coriolis effect
  73. What three factors determine global climates:
    • Solar energy 
    • Atmospheric air circulation 
    • The shape and rotation of the earth
  74. _____ is arctic and at high elevations. Vegetation is low-growing. Underlain by permafrost.
  75. ________ _______ (coniferous) forest have cold, long winters; short summers. Dominated by evergreens. short growing seasons, Have only a few tress. Dominate species- moose and hares.
    Temperate evergreen
  76. ______ __________ Forest have evenly distributed precipitation, but temps fluctuate dramatically. Dominated by tress that lose eaves during the cold season.
    Temperate deciduous
  77. _______ ________ (prairie) are dry mud of the year; hot summers and cold winters. Much has been converted to agriculture.
    Temperate grasslands
  78. ____ ______ is dominated by few species; low lying shrubs. plants produce lots of seeds that support the see eating birds and rodents.
    Cold desert
  79. ___ _____ has more species and structurally diverse vegetation than cold deserts. Many annuals grow after a rainfall. Pollination and fruit dispersal by animals
    Hot dessert
  80. Animal adaptations for aridity (hot desert):
    Nocturnal patterns, Efficient kidneys and burrow nests
  81. Plant adaptations for aridity (hot deserts)
    Thick cuticle, CAM photosynthesis, Large root system and deep tap root, ability to go dormant
  82. ______ ___________ (grasslands) the rainfall may be heavy in summer. Small tress may drop leaves in dry winter. Acacia are common. Savannas support large grazing and browsing mammals and large predators
    Tropical Savanna
  83. ______ _______ forest most trees lose leaves during the dry season. Many flow while leafless. Most have been cleared for agriculture and cattle grazing.
    Tropical deciduous
  84. _______ ______ forest are equatorial regions with high rainfall. Highest species richness of all biomes. Overall highest productivity. Soils are poor.
    Tropical Evergreen
  85. ______________ ______ is an applied science, devoted to protecting and managing Earth's biodiversity at many levels.
    Conservation Biology
  86. ________ ______- species that have a disproportionately large influence on community dynamics.
    Keystone species (otter)
  87. Human actives that threaten survival:
    1. H______ d________
    2. Introduction of ______ _____
    3. O____________
    4. C_____ c_____
    • Habitat destruction 
    • exotic species 
    • overexploitation 
    • Climate change