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What three Subphylum's make up the Chordata?
The ______ subphylum has no jaw
The _______ subphylum is jawed mouth
What two species make up the Agnatha superclass?
Hagfish and Lamprey
What is the jaw evolution?
Modification of gill arches to new function
What two things did the jaw evolution allow to happen?
- Exploitation of new food sources
- Changed feeding behaviors
Class Chondrichthyes (______) have a ______________ tail, and _____ scales.
Shark; heterocercal; Placiod
Eggs within the mother are ____________?
Egg laying are _________?
Live birth is ________?
Sharks have a __ chambered heart
Sharks have a ________ gut, and intestine have a _____ valve that helps by increasing _______ area.
complete; spiral; surface
Sharks sensory canals are ______ line and the receptors are ________ organs
Skate is ______ (egg laying) had ____ fin, fleshy ____ and are often ___ (size)
Oviparous; dorsal; tail; small
Eagle Ray are _______ (live birth), have no _____ fin, _____ tail and are often ____ (size)
Viviparous; dorsal; narrow; large
The electric organs are _____ muscles and can deliver up to ___ volts.
Modified muscles; 200
Superclass Gnathostomata are the ____ fishes
Osteichthyes(bony fishes) have a ____ skeleton, ____-____ (gas filled pouch), ______ over gill slits and __ chambered heart with ___ circulation.
bony skeleton' swim-bladder; operculum; 2; single
The swim bladder allows fish to control ______
Teleost fish have ____ or _____ scales
______ tails and increased _________ allow for fast swimming
Moray eel has a _____ jaw that sits in the back or the throat and pulls food down to chew.
Lung fish have a __ chambered heart, and can have ____ or _____ circulation
3; single or double
A ______ has four limbs
Class Amphibia has a __ chambered heart with ____ circulation, is ________ (cold-blooded).
3; double; Ectothermic
In Class Amphibia the transition to land is incomplete because of theses three reasons
- Eggs only have jelly like membrane covering
- No scales, moist skin with glands
Respiration in Class Amphibia is via ___, ____ and ____
skin, lungs and gills
What three orders make up class Amphibia?
Caecilians, newts and salamanders, frogs and toads
Caecilians are _____ (snake like), ______ (fossorial) or ____ (water).
Limbless; burrowing or aquatic
Newts and salamanders have __ limbs, have respiration via ____, ____,___ and have ___ fertilization with _____ (packets of sperm)
4; gills, lungs, skin; spermatophores
_____________ or neoteny is the retention os juvenile traits in adults
Frogs and toad have moos skin with glands that consists of ___________, ______ glands and ________ glands
Chromatophore; poison; mucous
________ is the joining of male and females in toads and frogs during reproduction
Parental care in forge and toads consist of
- Dorsal pouches
- brooding pouches
- attaching to adult
- vocal pouch
What allowed reptiles to be successful on land?
- Amniotic egg
- Thoracic breathing
- Internal fertilization
- Mor efficient circulatory system
- Lungs for respiration
Amniotic eggs are made of _____, _______ and ______ membranes
amnion; chorion and allantois
Anapsids skull has __ opening behind eye sockets. Synapsids have ___ pair of openings. Diapsids have ____ openings in skull.
no; one; two
Class Reptile has horny ____ covering the epidermis, __ paired limbs and __ toes. __ chambered hearts, _________ (body temp) and ________ egg.
scales; 2; 5; 3; ectothermic; amniotic egg
Turtles and tortoises have enclosed in ___ fused to _______. No _____, ______(feeding).
shell; vertebrae; teeth; omnivores
Lepidosauria have a highly kinetic ____ with flexible ____.
Reproduction is internal in lizards and snakes due to _______
Snakes are _______ (feet), left ___ reduced, no outer ___, no moveable ______ and are _______(feeding type)
limbless; lung; ears; eyelids; predatory
Class Aves have ________ are modified for flight, body covered with ______, horny ___ and no ____. __ chambered heart, internal ________.
forelimbs; feathers; beaks; teeth; 4; fertilization
Adaptations for flight are: _____ , ______ and ______
feathers; reduction of organs; hollow bones
Birds have a high ______ rate because they are ________.
Aves have a complex nervous system because of a large ______, complex _____, and excellent _____ and _____.
cerebrum, behavior, hearing and vision
Annual cycles of birds include ____, _________, and _____
molt; migration and breeding
Cues for navigation during migration in birds:
Landmarks, sum compass, star compass, magnetic compass
Human evolution in primates includes: _______ hands, large ____, _______ vision and complex social _____
grasping; brains; binocular; behavior
General requirements of all organisms:
- Source of ______
-Source fo ______
-interaction with ____________
energy (feeding); carbon (oxygen); boundary(shell, fur, feathers); environment(nervous system); genetic (life cycles)
An example of convergent evolution
animals with specialized poisons for predation ex: spiders, rattlesnakes, hydra
Example of Divergent evolution:
One benefit of sexual reproduction?
Genetic diversity among offspring
One benefit of asexual reproduction?
Don't have to rely on a mate
_______ is the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment.
_____-species interactions are _____
___-species interaction are _______
____ factors are living
______ factors are physical or chemical
Groups of organisms are organized into _________(many species) -->composed of--> ___________(one species)--> composed of--> _____________
Communities; Populations; Individuals
A ______ is composed of communities plus the physical environment
A ____ has unique climate and biological feature. It may include >1 ecosystem
The _________ includes all the biomes on earth
__________ ______ studies the flow of energy and chemical compounds through and ecosystem.
Example of a study of an individual:
Life cycle and annual cycle, mating behavior, egg production
Example of a population study:
How they are finding resources; migration patterns
Examples of a community study:
Predators, weather effects, fungus ratio
Examples of ecosystem study:
Death of trees affects of loss of habitat; loss of food source
Examples of a Biome study:
Temperate coniferous forest
____ energy determines temperature?
Solar (the sun)
__ _________ determines aridity and precipitation?
The _____ _____ : because the earth is rotates and is round air moving over it seems to turn.
What three factors determine global climates:
- Solar energy
- Atmospheric air circulation
- The shape and rotation of the earth
_____ is arctic and at high elevations. Vegetation is low-growing. Underlain by permafrost.
________ _______ (coniferous) forest have cold, long winters; short summers. Dominated by evergreens. short growing seasons, Have only a few tress. Dominate species- moose and hares.
______ __________ Forest have evenly distributed precipitation, but temps fluctuate dramatically. Dominated by tress that lose eaves during the cold season.
_______ ________ (prairie) are dry mud of the year; hot summers and cold winters. Much has been converted to agriculture.
____ ______ is dominated by few species; low lying shrubs. plants produce lots of seeds that support the see eating birds and rodents.
___ _____ has more species and structurally diverse vegetation than cold deserts. Many annuals grow after a rainfall. Pollination and fruit dispersal by animals
Animal adaptations for aridity (hot desert):
Nocturnal patterns, Efficient kidneys and burrow nests
Plant adaptations for aridity (hot deserts)
Thick cuticle, CAM photosynthesis, Large root system and deep tap root, ability to go dormant
______ ___________ (grasslands) the rainfall may be heavy in summer. Small tress may drop leaves in dry winter. Acacia are common. Savannas support large grazing and browsing mammals and large predators
______ _______ forest most trees lose leaves during the dry season. Many flow while leafless. Most have been cleared for agriculture and cattle grazing.
_______ ______ forest are equatorial regions with high rainfall. Highest species richness of all biomes. Overall highest productivity. Soils are poor.
______________ ______ is an applied science, devoted to protecting and managing Earth's biodiversity at many levels.
________ ______- species that have a disproportionately large influence on community dynamics.
Keystone species (otter)
Human actives that threaten survival:
1. H______ d________
2. Introduction of ______ _____
4. C_____ c_____
- Habitat destruction
- exotic species
- Climate change