animals with specialized poisons for predation ex: spiders, rattlesnakes, hydra
Example of Divergent evolution:
One benefit of sexual reproduction?
Genetic diversity among offspring
One benefit of asexual reproduction?
Don't have to rely on a mate
_______ is the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment.
_____-species interactions are _____
___-species interaction are _______
____ factors are living
______ factors are physical or chemical
Groups of organisms are organized into _________(many species) -->composed of--> ___________(one species)--> composed of--> _____________
Communities; Populations; Individuals
A ______ is composed of communities plus the physical environment
A ____ has unique climate and biological feature. It may include >1 ecosystem
The _________ includes all the biomes on earth
__________ ______ studies the flow of energy and chemical compounds through and ecosystem.
Example of a study of an individual:
Life cycle and annual cycle, mating behavior, egg production
Example of a population study:
How they are finding resources; migration patterns
Examples of a community study:
Predators, weather effects, fungus ratio
Examples of ecosystem study:
Death of trees affects of loss of habitat; loss of food source
Examples of a Biome study:
Temperate coniferous forest
____ energy determines temperature?
Solar (the sun)
__ _________ determines aridity and precipitation?
The _____ _____ : because the earth is rotates and is round air moving over it seems to turn.
What three factors determine global climates:
Atmospheric air circulation
The shape and rotation of the earth
_____ is arctic and at high elevations. Vegetation is low-growing. Underlain by permafrost.
________ _______ (coniferous) forest have cold, long winters; short summers. Dominated by evergreens. short growing seasons, Have only a few tress. Dominate species- moose and hares.
______ __________ Forest have evenly distributed precipitation, but temps fluctuate dramatically. Dominated by tress that lose eaves during the cold season.
_______ ________ (prairie) are dry mud of the year; hot summers and cold winters. Much has been converted to agriculture.
____ ______ is dominated by few species; low lying shrubs. plants produce lots of seeds that support the see eating birds and rodents.
___ _____ has more species and structurally diverse vegetation than cold deserts. Many annuals grow after a rainfall. Pollination and fruit dispersal by animals
Animal adaptations for aridity (hot desert):
Nocturnal patterns, Efficient kidneys and burrow nests
Plant adaptations for aridity (hot deserts)
Thick cuticle, CAM photosynthesis, Large root system and deep tap root, ability to go dormant
______ ___________ (grasslands) the rainfall may be heavy in summer. Small tress may drop leaves in dry winter. Acacia are common. Savannas support large grazing and browsing mammals and large predators
______ _______ forest most trees lose leaves during the dry season. Many flow while leafless. Most have been cleared for agriculture and cattle grazing.
_______ ______ forest are equatorial regions with high rainfall. Highest species richness of all biomes. Overall highest productivity. Soils are poor.
______________ ______ is an applied science, devoted to protecting and managing Earth's biodiversity at many levels.
________ ______- species that have a disproportionately large influence on community dynamics.
Keystone species (otter)
Human actives that threaten survival:
1. H______ d________
2. Introduction of ______ _____
4. C_____ c_____