Summer Session II; Anatomy; Lecture 17; Joints of the lower limb
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List 4 char. of the Sacroiliac joint
- -Synovial joint
- -Articulation between the sacrum and ilium
- -both surfaces contain iregular shapes that help bones interlock
- -strong joint capsule with the strongest ligaments in the body
List 6 ligaments of the SI joint
- -Interosseous sacroiliac ligament
- -posterior sacroiliac ligament
- -anterior sacroiliac ligament
- -iliolumbar ligament
- -sacrotuberous ligament
- -sacrospinous ligament
explain significance of all ligaments of the SI joint
- Interosseous Sacroiliac ligaments -massive, strong ligaments that unite the sacral and iliac tuberosities.
- • Posterior Sacroiliac ligaments -composed of short and long fibers that connect the sacrum and ilium posteriorly. It blends with the sacrotuberous ligament.
- • Anterior Sacroiliac ligaments -transverse fibers that support the anterior and inferior portion of the sacroiliac joint. Ligaments
- • Iliolumbar ligament -accessory ligament of the sacroiliac joint. It supports the L5-S 1 joint.
- • Sacrotuberous ligament -helps support the sacroiliac joint by preventing upward movement (nutation) of the sacrum • Sacrospinous ligament --helps support the sacroiliac joint by preventing upward movement (nutation) of the sacrum
List 3 parts of the Hip joint
acetabulum, femur and capsule
list 2 char of the hip joint
- -synovial joint (ball and socket)
- -articulation of the head of the ffumur and the acetabulum of the os coxae
what deepens the acetabulum?
- acetabular labrum
What does the acetabulular labrum attach to? (2)
- -bony rim
- -transverse acetabular ligament (spans the acetabular notch createing the acetabular foramen)
What is the purpose for the acetabular foramen?
Provide passage of blood vessels and nerves to the joint cavity
What is the the purpose of the ligamentum teres femoris? what is the attachment of this with the small depression called?
attach the femur to the transverse acetabular ligament
and the acetabular labrum
; fovea capitis
Describe the capusule of the hip joint (2)
- -Forms a cylindrical sleeve about the head and neck of the femur
- -has 4 thickenings that help to stregthen it;
- -iliofemoral ligament
- -ishiofemoral ligament
- -pubofemoral ligament
- -zona obicularis
describe the iliofemoral ligament. When is it tight? What does it help prevent
- -extends from the AIIS and acetabular rim to the intertrochanteric line;
- it is tight in extension of the thigh;
- prevents hyperextension of the hip in standing
Describe the ischiofemoral ligament. What does it prevent?
- -extends from the acetabulum posteriorly and spirals superiorlaterally to the neck of femur and greater trochanter.
- -helps prevent hyperextension
describe the pubofemoral ligament. When is it "taut"? what does it prevent?
- -extends from the pubic part of the acetabulum and superior ramus of the intertrochanteric line;
- tuat in extension;
- -prevents excessive abduction of thigh
describe the zona orbicularis
- capusular fibers that encircle the neck of the femur
what are the two extension of the hip joint synovial capusle that serve as bursae?
- Anteriorly- bursa under the tendon of the iliopsoas
- Posteriorly- bursa for the tendon of obturator externus muscle (pic showed on posterior side of body)
list the blood supply to the hip joint; (3)
List the innervation to the hip joint; (4)
Medial and lateral cirumflex arteries, and artery to the head of the femur
- femoral nerve
- obturator nerve
- superior gluteal nerve
- nerve to quadraturs femoris
The knee joint is obviously a synovial joint of the hinge variety, but how would you describe the amount of rotation, small or large?
small rotation. Duh!
How many external ligaments (extracapsular ligaments) are there on the knee joint? List them.
- Patellar ligament
- fibular collateral ligament or lcl
- tibial collateral ligament or mcl
- arcuate ligament
- oblique popliteal ligament
Describe the patellar ligament. What is its function?
- A continuation of the quadrecipects tendon;
- Strengthens the anterior capsue of the knee
What are the attachments of the LCL? Describe the LCL.
- extends from the lateral epicodyle of the femur to the lateral surface of the head of the fibula.
- -It is partialy fused with the capusle on the superior end. Strengthens lateral capsule
Describe the attachements of the Tibial collateral ligament; Now describe the ligament.
- extends from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial surface of the tibia.
- -Strengthens fibrous capusle and is completely intrinsic.
Name two Y shaped ligaments.
Iliofemoral ligament of the hip joint and the Arcuate ligament of the knee joint
What strengthens the posterior capsule of the knee joint: (2)
- Arcuate ligament (y-shaped)
- Oblique popliteal ligament ( also is part of the floor of the popliteal fossa *remember PCO- Patellar surface of the femur, Capsule of the knee joint and Oblique popliteal ligament)
Which ligament is an expansion of the tendon of the semimembranous muscle?
- Oblique popliteal ligament!
The capusle of the knee joint creates multiple bursae. How many are there? Describe each one.
- Suprapatellar- extension of synovial capusule between the femur and quadriceps tendon.
- Popliteus- extension of synovial capusle between the popliteus and lateral condyle of the tibia.
- Gastrocnemius- exstension of synovial capusule between the medial head of gastroc and femur.
- Subcutaneuous prepatellar- b/w skin and patella
- Subcutanuous infrapatellar- b/w skin and tibial tuberosity
- Deep infrapatellar- b/w patellar ligament and tibia.
Name two intra capsular ligaments of the knee joint. What does each prevent?
- Anterior cruciate Ligament-prevents posterior displacement of the femur on the tibia and hyperextension of the knee joint.
- Posterior cruciate ligament- prevents anterior displacement of the femur on the tibia or posterior displacement of the tibia.
Describe the attachments of the ACL.
Arises from the anterior intercondyler area of the tibia and extends, superiorly/posteriorly/laterally to attach to the posterior part of the medial side of the lateral condyle of the femur.
Which intra capsular ligament is the "main stablizer of the flexed knee during gait"
Posterior Cruciate ligament
Describe the attachments of the PCL. What is its function?
- Arises from the posterior aspect of the intercondyler area of the tibia and passes anteriorlly and superiorly on the medial side of the ACL to the anterior part of the lateral side of the medial condyle of the femur.
- -Main stablizer of the flexed knee during gait
What are menisci? Function? List them. What is sometimes present anteriorly and joins the two menisci?
- - two fibrocartilaginous discs
- -deepens the shallow articular fossa of the tibia
- -medial meniscus (c shaped) and lateral meniscus (o shaped)
- -transverse meniscal ligament
List 2 char. of the medial meniscus. What attaches it to the tibia?
- -c shaped
- -firmly attached to the tibial collateral ligament (or MCL)
- -attached along the periphery of the tibial condyle by coronary ligaments
What seperates the lateral meniscus from the fibular collateral ligament? Shape of Lateral meniscus? What attaches it to the tibia? What is the posterior meniscofemoral ligament?
- The tendon of the popliteas muscle;
- "O shape";
- coronary ligaments;
- strong tendinous extension of the lateral mensiucs that attaches to the PCL and medial condyle of the femur.
What is another name for the posterior meniscofemoral ligament?
What about the anterior meniscofemoral ligament?
- Ligament of Wrisberg; (this ligament is more common)
- Ligament of humphrey
What is the blood supply of the knee joint? What is the innervation? (4)
- -genicular branches
- obturator n
- femoral n.
- tibial n.
- common peroneal n.
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