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2014-05-05 03:18:52

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  1. What is biotechnology?
    The exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes
  2. What is a vector?
    In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed.
  3. Why are bacteria such good organisms for molecular biotechnology?
    Because they automatically treat foreign DNA as its own
  4. What is a restriction enzyme and what does it do?
    Type of enzyme that cuts specific base sequences in DNA.
  5. What is meant by a “sticky end”? Where do sticky ends come from?
    It’s the end of DNA after it’s been cut by restriction enzymes. The ends only stick to the proper matching fragment.
  6. DNA ligase
    is used to join the fragments as hybrid molecules (during gene splicing)
  7. DNA polymerase
    is a DNA replication enzyme. It assembles a new strand of DNA based on the sequence of a DNA template. Used during DNA cloning.
  8. Describe the process of gene splicing or recombinant DNA technology
    A restriction enzyme recognizes a specific base sequence in DNA from two sources. *The enzyme cuts DNA from both sources into fragments that have sticky ends. *The DNA fragments from the two sources are mixed together. *The matching sticky ends base-pair with each other. * DNA ligase joins the fragments of DNA where they overlap. Molecules of recombinant DNA are the result.
  9. What is recombinant DNA technology?
    A DNA molecule that contains genetic material from more than one organism.
  10. What is PCR and of what use is it?
    Polymerase chain reaction. Method that rapidly generates many copies of a specific DNA fragment.
  11. Describe the process of DNA finger printing
    Everyone’s DNA is different, So, the same restriction enzyme will cut different people’s DNA at different places *This makes lots of different sized pieces depending on the DNA *Using electrophoresis we can separate these pieces and see them. This is each person’s DNA fingerprint
  12. What are transgenic organisms?
    Refers to an organism that has been genetically modified to carry a gene from a different species.
  13. Transgenic Bacteria:
    Human growth hormone and insulin, t-PA (clotting factor), hep B vaccine, Frost and insect damage to plants, mosquito control, Toxic waste cleanup
  14. Transgenic Plants:
    • Helps increase yields, Providing superior quality and strains; Disease, draught, frost, insect, and
    • herbicide resistance; Prolonged shelf lives, etc.
  15. Transgenic Animals:
    Disease resistance and superior growth, Working on fish; Gene pharming Using transgenic organisms to produce products Spider silk, drugs, etc.; Genetically altered to produce human organs, Using pigs currently (because of size and xenotransplantation)
  16. Ex-vivo
    patient’s cells are grown in a culture and infected with a virus containing a corrected gene, the cells are then placed back into the patient.
  17. In-vivo
    virus with corrected gene is introduced directly into the patient
  18. Make a list of some categories of biotechnology products.
    • • insulin
    • • spider silk
    • • human organs through xenotransplantation
  19. xenotransplantation
    Transplantation of an organ from one species into another genetically modified organism (GMO)
  20. plasmid
    A small, circular DNA molecule in bacteria, replicated independently of the chromosome.
  21. clone
    A genetically identical copy of DNA, a cell, or an organism
  22. cloning vectors
    DNA molecule that can accept foreign DNA, be transferred to a host cell, and get replicated in it
  23. DNA cloning
    Set of procedures that uses living cells to make many identical copies of a DNA fragment.
  24. Describe Darwin’s concept of natural selection and his explanation of how adaptations might arise.
    • 1. Members of a population have inheritable variation
    • 2. Many more offspring are produced than can survive in the current environment so there is a “struggle to exist” among individuals
    • 3. Some individuals will have inherited traits making them better able to survive and reproduce in the current environment (have adaptive characters), i.e., more likely to “win the struggle to exist”
    • 4. After generations, more and more of the population will be made up of these individuals with these traits (i.e., adaptive characters) The result is a population of organisms well suited to their environment. He then thought that if enough time lapsed, enough changes would accumulate so that you have a new species
  25. He then thought that if enough time lapsed, enough changes would accumulate so that you have a new species
  26. What is an adaptation?
    any trait that makes an organism be better suited to its environment by helping it survive and reproduce in that environment
  27. Describe Lamark’s ideas about evolution.
    Developed the concept of “inheritance of acquired characteristics” as a mechanism for evolution…in other words if an animal has to stretch its neck for food, it’s off-spring will be born with longer necks. That turns out to be b.s. If that was so, if an animal wound up losing one of its legs, its off-spring will be born with three legs.
  28. What was Lyell’s contribution to evolution?
    Wrote “Principles of Geology” the first Geology textbook which proposed the theory of uniformitarianism, this caused geologists to estimate that the earth is very, very old
  29. Describe “uniformitarianism”
    the slow steady geological processes (or other processes) we see now have always occurred uniformly since Earth was formed.
  30. homologous structures
    have the same ancestral origin, and may or may not have different functions. Example Bird wings and bat wings
  31. analogous structures
    have the same function but not same ancestral origin. Example Insect wings and bird wings
  32. What is a fossil? Describe how fossils provide evidence of evolution.
    Preserved evidence of life, transformed bones, footprints, and even fecal matters, forms within layers of sediment, oldest is at the bottom, newest is at the top
  33. Evolution evidence in Physics
    Age of the earth, 4.8 billion years old, age of earth is enough to support Darwin’s mechanism
  34. Evidence of evolution in Geology
    Oldest fossilized evidence has the least number of species. In order from oldest to newest: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
  35. Geography
    Distribution of living things, fossil records to give insight in how things may have changed. Location of pouched mammals only found in Australia, Antarctica, and South America. Only there because those three continents were connected to each other, back during the main continental drift
  36. Anatomy
    Most organisms exhibit what is known as unity of plan. For example, flowers of all flowering plants have the same parts; All vertebrates have same basic skeletal elements; Parts may actually have different function, but nonetheless still the same parts
  37. Embryology
    Embryos of similar yet distinct organism have remarkably similar development and structures. For example, all vertebrates have post-anal tails, and paired gill pouches. Very difficult for distinguishing between species at early embryonic stages
  38. Biochemistry
    When examining shared proteins, the more similar two organisms are the more amino acids their proteins have in common. For example, monkey and man share all but one amino acid in Cytochrome c, whereas man and fish differ in over 20 amino acids
  39. Molecular Biology
    The more similar or closely related two organisms are the more similar their DNA fingerprints should be. Ape and man DNA fingerprints are more similar than man and fish, etc. Dogs and cats are more similar to one another than either is to lizards
  40. What is a theory? A hypothesis? How do they differ? Why is it incorrect to say, “It is just a theory”?
    A hypothesis has no evidence. Theories have lots of scientific evidence behind it
  41. What is a population?
    Population—all the members of the same species in the same place at the same time
  42. How do mutations affect evolution?
    Mutations are changes in the DNA. the only source of new genes. Most are deleterious and result in the death of the individual. Some are neutral and no advantage or disadvantage. Some are advantageous and enhance fitness of those possessing them. If so this new, advantageous form will spread throughout the gene pool. Then diversity is increased
  43. How does gene flow affect evolution?
    Gene flow is movement of genes among populations. Emigration and immigration brings genes from one population’s gene pool into another population’s gene pool. Tends to add diversity and make the two populations more similar
  44. How does nonrandom mating affect evolution?
    Assortative mating. Where similar types mate. Reduces diversity within these types
  45. How does sexual selection affect evolution
    • Males compete for females and females choose among males. For example, bird plumage
    • Female choose most brightly colored males. These males have fewer parasites. Offspring have fewer parasites. Offspring survive and reproduce better. Males will get brighter and brighter.
  46. How does genetic drift affect evolution?
    Changes in gene pool due to chance alone. Bottleneck Effect . Due to random catastrophic event. Founders Effect. Only small portion of the gene pool migrates and establishes a new population
  47. How does Directional selection affect a population?
    When one extreme or the other of all the types available is favored, i.e., has higher fitness. Very typical when the environment for an organism changes
  48. How does Stabilizing selection affect a population?
    Occurs when an intermediate form or type is preferred, i.e., has higher fitness.Improves the population with respect to constant environmental conditions
  49. How does disruptive selection affect a population?
    Two or more extreme phenotypes are favored, i.e., have higher fitness Something in the environment has directly affected the intermediate, or common, type
  50. Describe, in detail, the process of speciation.
    • For a new species to evolve from a previous species reproductive isolation of some kind is required
    • Prezygotic isolation (before fertilization)
    • Habitat—occupy different habitats
    • Temporal—reproduces at different seasons or different times of day
    • Behavioral—courtship behavior, songs, calls, pheromones, etc. differ
    • Mechanical—genitalia unsuitable
    • Postzygotic isolation (after mating)
    • Gamete isolation—sperm cannot reach or fertilize the egg
    • Zygote mortality, sterility or fitness reduction—zygote dies, individual is sterile, or have severely reduced fitness
  51. What is meant by sympatric speciation?
    (sympatric means “together”). Eventually they can no longer breed and produce fertile offspring. Usually prezygotic isolation is behavioral, temporal, or habitat
  52. What is meant by allopatric speciation?
    (allopatric means “apart”). Reproductive isolation serves to stop gene flow between one population and others. Geographic isolation is common and is a form of prezygotic reproductive isolation. It eventually results in permanent reproductive isolation
  53. What is adaptive radiation?
    Is the rapid development of many species from a single ancestral species. Frequently happens when a species moves into a new areas with multiple, different habitats available. Genetic variants take advantage of new habitats not previously available and flourish. Eventually, reproductive isolation sets in and new species are result