us gov't 2311

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tvr0227
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us gov't 2311
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2014-05-05 14:56:30
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US Govt 2311 (Dr. Hardt)
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  1. Define Power:
    actual ability to influence
  2. Define authority:
    delegate right to influence
  3. US Equal Employment Oppurtunity Commission:

    what is the class of people that is not federally protected?
    sexual orientation
  4. when the founders of the USA established the Constitution, what did they believe was one particular advantage to having a system of the system of checks and balances?
    it protected against gov't tyranny by any one branch of gov't
  5. The United States' first written Constitution was known as the _______
    Articles of confederation
  6. How does the system of federalism fragment govt power?
    By dividing govt powers between a natl govt and the states
  7. What is the difference between an authoritarian regime and a totalitarian regime?
    In an authoritarian regime, the power of the dictator is limited by other informal sources of influence (institutions, internal groups)

    In a totalitarian regime, the dictator has no limits on their power
  8. In writing the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson was influenced by philosopher Hobbes and Locke's writings on the social contract into the Constitution.  What key assumption did Hobbes, Locke and Jefferson all make about humanity?
    Humans are inherently bestial and need a common authority to protect them from themselves
  9. Name one reason the Articles of Confederation failed and were eventually replaced.
    The govt had no way of collecting revenue and therefore no was of sustaining itself
  10. Although most of it was not adopted, the most significant part of the New Jersey Plan that is reflected in our Constitution today is _____.
    the fact that small states have equal representatino to big states (at least in the Senate)
  11. Which of the following best represents the functions of each of the three branches of govt in regard to laws?
    Legislative - passes laws

    Executive - enforces laws

    Judicial - interprets laws
  12. Who holds the power to strike down a law that potentially conflicts with the Constitution?
    Judicial branch
  13. What does it mean when a person says that she views the Constitution as a "living document"?
    One should be willing to interpret and adapt the Constitution according to the changing needs of society
  14. The __________  called for one house of the legislature in which each state would have one vote.
    New Jersey Plan
  15. What is an example of a power that the president possesses and that acts as a check on Congress?
    Vetoing a bill passed by Congress
  16. Name one of the key compromises between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan.
    Nat'l laws are supreme over state laws
  17. In the US today, we have a political system of representative repulicanism.  What does this mean?
    Voters elect politicians who make policy decisions on their behalf
  18. Each state has ___ senators elected every ____ years.
    two

    six
  19. _______ is the process of allotting congressional seats to each state according to its proportion of the population.
    Apportionment
  20. A(n) ________ is an unlimited debate in which one senator or a group of senators keeps talking without interruption unless 3/5 of the chamber votes to end the discussion.
    filibuster
  21. Which model of representation is enacted when a representative follows the will of the people until he/she truly believes it is in the best interests of the nation to act differently?
    conscience
  22. What is an example of logrolling in Congress?
    supporting a bill in exchange for support of one's own bill
  23. Members of Congress generally differ from the larger American population in they are disproportionately ___________.  However, this is changing, particularly as the 2010 congressional elections brought increased diversity to the legislature.
    white, upper-middle-class, middle aged, and male
  24. Which kind of committee can be convened to conduct a special investigation in the event of a major scandal?
    select/special
  25. Which example best demonstrates a legislator acting as a delegate of his or her constituency?
    following the public opinion of the constituency, regardless of his or her personal viewpoint
  26. Why are there currently 435 members in the House of Representatives?
    number is fixed at this limit by Congress and based on proportional representation
  27. Congressional whips serve what main function?
    persuade party members to toe the party line
  28. Which statement is true of the House of Representatives?
    Members are elected every 2 years and apportioned to states based on population
  29. Which of the following are considered to be general characteristics of the Senate?
    more media coverage, somewhat less partisan
  30. What best represents the trend of party polarization over the past 3 decades?
    party polarization has increased as bipartisanship has decreased
  31. ______ is a vote in Congress to end debate which requires a 3/5 vote of the entire membership of the Senate.
    Cloture
  32. Once a bill has been introduced in Congress, what is typically the next step in the process?
    referral to a committee
  33. Which one of the powers listed below is a constitutional power that the president shares with the Senate?
    a. making treaties

    b. granting pardons

    c. receiving foreign ambassadors

    d. replacing Cabinet heads
  34. Congress can remove a president through ______.
    impeachment
  35. Which president was impeached by the Republican-controlled House of Representatives in the last 30 years?
    Bill Clinton
  36. Which of the following is an example of the rally round the flag effect?
    Bush's popularity was boosted following 9/11 terrorist attacks
  37. The use of ____________ in foreign matters is an example of the president acting as a global leader.
    executive agreement
  38. Which presidential power gives the president the ability to control what happens inside depts and agencies during their terms and to shape the federal judiciary far into the future?
    appointments
  39. What is prerogative power?
    the president and Congress must work together on every issue and reach an agreement through compromise, as neither has the right to act alone
  40. Which shaped the modern presidency and gave birth to the welfare state?
    the New Deal (FDR)
  41. How might presidents use their powers of persuasion in the legislative process?
    leading the public opinion to support their policy agendas
  42. How has the office of the VP changed over the years?
    VP has been more involved in the policy making process in recent years
  43. Which of the following leadership abilities is critical to presidential candidates?
    ability to persuade Congress and American public
  44. When do citizens become suddenly concerned about an expansion of presidential power?
    when they oppose the president's agenda
  45. What distinguishes the modern presidency from the institution originally envisioned by the framers of the Constitution?
    modern presidency has  become the central focus of American politics since the 1930s, supplanting Congress as the "first branch" of govt
  46. Which of the following statements provides the best characterization of the members of the White House staff?
    WH staff is composed of individuals personally and politically close to the president chosen specifically to serve the president's needs
  47. Why was the War Powers Resolution (1973) adopted by Congress?
    to reinvigorate the role of Congress in the conduct of war
  48. Why is the US classified as a "republic"?
    Americans delegate authority to a set of elected representatives who decide for them
  49. The Great Compromise led to the current legislative system, which is:
    a bicameral legislature with an equal number of representatives for each state in upper chamber and the lower chamber representation is based on population
  50. The Anti-Federalists viewed the new Constitution as a threat to peoples liberty because it _____________.
    provided a centralized govt that would be distant from the people's interests
  51. Which statement describes the form of govt called a "confederation"?
    state govt possess the primary authority
  52. What is the central difference between authority and power?
    authority is acknowledged right to decision making and power is the expression of it
  53. Which clause in the Constitution gives Congress its biggest grant of power?
    necessary and proper clause, aka elastic clause
  54. The founders of the Constitution created a system of checks and balances:
    to prevent a resurgence of tyranny like that experienced under the British monarchy
  55. The Articles of Confederation preceded the Constitution because:
    the Articles failed to provide a means for the govt to collect revenue
  56. Thomas Jefferson believed that the Constitution should be a "living document".  What does this mean?
    Constitution should be interpreted and adapted depending on society's needs
  57. Why did the founders describe the legislature first in the Constitution?
    they believed that the legislature was the most important branch of govt
  58. Which of the following is an example of a modern day debate (s) over federalism?
    • a. legalization of marijuana
    • b. same sex marriage
    • c. healthcare
    • d. all of the above
  59. Recall 3 political models: unitary, confederal, and federal.  In the unitary system, who has the most power?
    natl govt
  60. As new technologies and globallization arise(e.g. stem cell research), what has been the trend with respect to US federalism over the past 50 years?
    regulation is occuring more frequently at the natl level
  61. Identify one advantage of regulating an issue at the national level:
    less chance that a minority group is discriminated against or overlooked
  62. Identify one advantage of regulating an issue at the state level:
    allows for a laboratory of democracy where states try a certain regulation before the national govt considers adopting it
  63. The term "gerrymander" refers to:
    drawing a legislative district's boundaries to benefit an incumbent or political party
  64. Assuming that there is NO filibuster in the Senate, what minimum percentage of votes does each chamber of Congress need to get a bill to the president's desk?
    51%
  65. Which of the following is true:
    members of the Senate take on riskier and more hotly debated legislation
  66. When a representative in Congress engages in "logrolling", he or she is:
    supporting a bill in exchange for support of one's own bill
  67. Which model of representation describes when a representative in Congress directly acts and votes according to the will of his/her constituents?
    delegate
  68. Which is a formal power that the president has for affecting foreign policy?
    power to receive and appoint ambassadors
  69. What is a example of one of the president's many informal powers?
    • a. building strong alliances with key members of Congress
    • b. mobilizing the public around key issues
    • c. using charm to win over key constituencies of specific legislation
    • d. all of the above
  70. When the VP is not present, the Senate is formally led by the __________.
    majority leader
  71. Name one way that a president's executive order could be revoked:
    Supreme Court declares is unconstitutional
  72. "Judicial review" means:
    Supreme Court can rule state laws or federal laws as constitutional or not
  73. Although most cases take years to arrive at the Supreme Court, a fast track procedure allows cases to go directly to the Court.  The Constitution calls this:
    original jurisdiction
  74. Although Supreme Court judges are intended to be independent arbiters, _________ typically appoints judges whose past rulings fit his/her political agenda.
    president
  75. Who holds the power to strike down a law in conflict with the Constitution?
    judicial branch
  76. Name a constitutional check on the Supreme Court's power.
    if acting improperly, Congress can impeach a Supreme Court justice
  77. What was MLKs long term policy aim?
    end segregation in the south
  78. Which characteristic is not one of the seven federally protected classes?
    sexual orientation
  79. Arizona's state legislature is close to passing a law allowing businesses to deny service to lesbian and gay customers on religious grounds. According to those people protesting the bill, this is a ____________ issue.
    civil rights
  80. Name the legislation that mandates all public buildings to have wheelchair access.
    American Disabilities Act (ADA)
  81. Define "racial profiling":
    deeming  someone to be a suspect of a crime based on the person's race
  82. You are a 65 y/o programmer at Facebook and your boss just fired you because, "We need some young blood in this office." You could sue your employer b/c:
    age is a federally protected class
  83. Identify a policy goal(s) of the women's rights movement:
    • a. legislature that men and women receive equal pay for equal work
    • b. end job discrimination (hiring/firing) of women based on pregnancy status
    • c. ensure student athletic programs receive equal public funding irrespective of gender
    • d. all of the above
  84. In contrasting civil rights and civil liberties, what is the major difference in terms of the role that the govt pays?
    Govt protects civil rights, civil liberties protect individuals from the govt
  85. The Constitution guarantees 10 civil liberties, which are called:
    Bill of Rights
  86. In the recent townhall, Team B argued that the ACA's provision was about universal access to preventative healthcare. Team A argued that it violates a ___________.
    civil liberty
  87. The anti-slavery movement that began in the North during the early 1800s did not get onto the mainstream agenda until after the publication of which novel?
    Uncle Tom's Cabin
  88. As a person's education level increases, what happens to his/her views on social and cultural issues?
    they grow more liberal
  89. What type of poll involves asking voters election-related questions right after they vote?
    exit poll
  90. What term is defined as a consistent set of beliefs that forms a person's general philosophy regarding the proper goals, purposes, functions, and size of govt?
    political ideology
  91. According to research from the Center of American Women in Politics at Rutgers Univ., one of the following public policy issues has no gender gap.
    abortion
  92. Which of the following facts about women today conflicts with how public opinion has progressed on women's issues in the past 100 years?
    women are significantly underrepresented in govt
  93. A person with which of the following ideologies is likelier to oppose major increases in govt spending for healthcare and to favor govt funding of faith based social service agencies that help the poor?
    conservative ideology
  94. Marie grows up in a politically active household, where both parents vote, contribute to campaigns, listen to nightly news broadcasts, and read weekly news magazines. They involve Marie in their discussions of the political events of the day, often commenting about the social and economic policies that they favor.  As she grows up, she adopts the political party affiliation of her parents. What process has Marie undergone?
    political socialization
  95. In what way do libertarians differ from conservatives?
    unlike conservatives, libertarians oppose govt restrictions on social issues like same sex marriage
  96. The margin of error represents:
    the range within which researchers are confident the larger population's true response would fall
  97. Professional pollsters rely most extensively on the _______ method because it produces the best results with predictable levels of error and reliability.
    simple random sample
  98. When the difference between 2 positions falls within the margin of error, __________
    opinion is too close to call
  99. Our earliest views of political matters usually comes from ______
    parents
  100. Which of the  following is a measure of a poll's reliability?
    margin of error
  101. Why does public opinion matter so much to politicians?
    they understand that understanding public opinion and responding to constituents' preferences are critical for getting re-elected
  102. WW1
    1914-1918
  103. WW2:
    1939-1945
  104. Cold War:
    1945-1989
  105. Monroe Doctrine:
    stop European aggresion
  106. Isolationism:
    US isolated itself from international issues
  107. Internationalism:
    US was dragged into WW1 and WW2 by international community. Hand was forced in order to support Allies
  108. Containment:
    restrict the spread of communism
  109. Deterrence:
    arms race- have enough arms so that no country will attack (intimidation)
  110. Detente:
    to relax, ease of hostility
  111. Intervention:
    US stepping in to protect other nations (protect Kuwait - Gulf War)
  112. Define trade deficit:
    imports > exports
  113. Define trade surplus:
    exports>imports
  114. Steps for legislation to become law:
    • 1. intro
    • 2. referral to committee
    • 3. committee consideration
    • 4. rules for floor action
    • 5. floor consideration
    • 6. conf. committee
    • 7. presidential action
    • 8. override presidential veto (if necessary)
  115. Presidents Constitutional Powers:
    • VASTC
    • 1. Veto
    • 2. Appointments
    • 3. State of the Union
    • 4. Treaties
    • 5. Commander in chief
  116. President's informal tools:
    MACE

    • 1. mobilize public
    • 2. Allies
    • 3. Charisma
    • 4. Executive privilege
  117. Supremecy clause:
    Supreme Court is the highest court in the land and can overrule any case from any lower court.
  118. 13th Amendment:
    Abolished slavery
  119. 14th Amendment:
    Established citizenship for former slaves
  120. 15th Amendment:
    Gave former slaves the right to vote
  121. 19th Amendment:
    Established woman's right to vote (woman's suffrage)
  122. Phillips curve:
    relationship between unemployment and inflation

    • as inflation rises, unemployment gets lower
    • as inflation decreases, unemployment get higher
  123. interest group:
    group of like minded people that form a group and try to influence public policy, public opinion, and/or public officials
  124. lobbying:
    -act of appealing from citizens for favorable policies(Lobbyist are hired by interest groups to advocate their ideas, usually to politicians)

    -literally wait in the lobby of Congress and approach politicians for support
  125. What was the threat during the Cuban Missile Crisis?
    MAD - mutually assured destruction
  126. JFK options during the Cuban Missile Crisis:
    • 1. move missiles from Turkey
    • 2. diplomacy
    • 3. attach Cuba (Russia)
    • 4. naval blockade
  127. Define security dilemma:
    arms race, each nation wanted to be the  most powerful
  128. Realism:
    States act on their own interests, no international concerns (conflicts) - prepare for war
  129. Liberalism:
    States act on their own interest but do care what the international community will support - shared help (NATO, United Nations)
  130. Constructivism:
    ideas are the key feature (peaceful) - shared norms
  131. Brinksmanship:
    (game of chicken) - coming to the edge of war without going to war
  132. Civilian power:
    diplomacy
  133. Benefits of Civilian Power:
    • 1. strengthen the economy
    • 2. less costly
    • 3. no war
    • 4. strengthen failed states
  134. Costs of Civilian Power:
    takes time and patience (not a quick fix)
  135. Foreign Policy-Presidential Powers:
    • (CAN)
    • 1. Commander in chief
    • 2. Appointment
    • 3. Negotiate treaties
  136. Foreign Policy-Congressional Powers
    • (RPLD)
    • 1. Ratify treaties
    • 2. Power of the purse (funding)
    • 3. Laws/legislation
    • 4. Declare war
  137. Informal Powers with regard to foreign policy:
    (MEdIA)

    • 1. Morale building and media access
    • 2. Executive agreement
    • 3. Information Access
    • 4. Agenda setting
  138. War Powers Act:
    (1973) President shall consult with Congress before going to war whenever possible.

    • - if troops are sent in, Congress can start clock (60 days) to determine if war is valid
    • - within 48 hrs, President supposed to brief Congress
  139. Trade policy:
    regulation of import of goods and svcs that enter the US
  140. Define tariff:
    tax on imports (meant to restrict the amount imported)
  141. Define non tariff barrier:
    using a quota vice tariff to restrict import of goods and svcs
  142. Benefits of free trade:
    • 1. increase the GDP
    • 2. people retrained
    • 3. increase economy
  143. Cost (cons) of free trade:
    • 1. jobs are lost
    • 2. become dependent on goods
    • 3. economic dependence
    • 4. environmental concerns
    • 5. human rights violations

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