1. What is a neoplasia?
2. What's the diff bt benign and malignant neoplasia?
3. How do you name neoplasias?
1. Neoplasia = new growth, productive of genetic change that allows excessive, unregulated cell prolif, indep of growth stimuli.
- 2. Benign - remains localized, cannot spread, most patients survive, but tumor locations can cause serious problems. surgical excision is possible. Arises from single mutation with a growth advantage.
- Histological - well circumscribed, encapsulated.
- small uniform cells, no visible nucleoli. Grows slowly, some dependence on hormones, well-differentiated, resembles cell of origin with few mitoses, secretion of products, hormones, mucin (basically behaves)
- Malignant neoplasia = cancer
- - Can invade, destroy adjacent tissue and metastasize to cause death. Histologically - poorly circumscribed, lack of cell polarity and epithelial cell connections.
Cytologically - l arge, pleomorphic cells with huge nuclei and nucleoli. Nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio is 1:1 (usually its 1:4), local invasion - not encapsulated and can invade, rapid growth, poorly differentiated/bizarre mitoses.
- 3. If benign: Name of tissue + OMA
- + SARCOMA (malignant) <--not epithelial
- + CARCINOMA (malignant) <---epithelial squamous/adeno
- Melanoma (actually malignant)