Nutrition 1010 Final exam.txt

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AngelinaJ
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273303
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Nutrition 1010 Final exam.txt
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2014-05-05 17:08:09
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nutrition
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  1. Nitrites
    added to meats and meat prodcuts to preserve their color and to inhibit rencidity and thwart bacterial growth. prevent the growth of the deadly botulinum bacterium.
  2. enterotoxin
    poisons that act upon mucous membranes, such as those of the digestive tract
  3. Sulfites
    prevent oxidation in many processed foods. some people experience dangerous allergic reactions.
  4. botulism
    an often fatal food poisoning caused by botulinum toxin, a toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium that grows without oxygen in non-acidic canned foods.
  5. GRAS
    Generally Recognized as Safe:  a list, established by the FDA, of food additives long in use and believed to be safe
  6. FDA
    Food and DRug Administration:  the part of the department of health and human services' public health service that is responsible for ensuring the safety and wholesomeness of all foods sold in interstate commerce except meat, poultry, and eggs (which are under the jurisdiction of the USDA); inspecting food plants and imported foods; and setting standards for food consumption. The FDA also regulates food additives.
  7. USDA
    U.S. Department of Agriculture:  the federal agency that is responsible for enforcing standards for the wholesomeness and quality of meant, poultry, and eggs produced in the United States; conducting nutrition research; and educating the public about nutrition.
  8. WHO
    World Health Organization: an agency of the United Nations charged with improving human health and preventing or controlling diseases in the world's people.
  9. EPA
    Environmental Protection Agency:  the federal agency that is responsible for regulating pesticides and establishing water quality standards.
  10. CDC
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: a branch of the Department of Health and Human Services that is responsible for monitoring foodborne diseases.
  11. BHA
    Butylated hydroxyanisole: preservatives added to many foods to prevent fat spoilage
  12. Nitrosamines
    chemicals linked with colon cancer... created from nitrites that once in the stomach are converted to nitrosamines.
  13. Which food hazards are of the highest concern to the FDA
    Microbial Foodborne illness

    • others:  Natural toxins in foods
    • residues in foods
    • intentional approved food additives
    • genetically modified foods.
  14. Primary causes of food-borne illness
    Microbes
  15. Natural toxins in food
    are a hazard mostly when people consume large quantities of single foods either by choice (fad diets) or by necessity (poverty)... e.g. mercury in fish, cyanogens, potatoes (solanine)
  16. Canning
    boil food to sterilize it and seal it in an impervious can or jar to preserve it, causes substantial losses of water-soluble vitamins.
  17. Freezing
    Cool a food to its frozen state to stop bacterial reproduction and slow enzymatic reactions, negligible effects on nutrients
  18. Drying
    Dehydrate foods to eliminate the water that microbes require for growth. commercial drying leaves most nutrients intact; home drying may destroy substantial vitamin content.
  19. Extrusion
    Grind, heat, and blend foods with certified colors and flavors and push the resulting paste through screens to form various shapes.  considerable nutrient losses occur.
  20. Most common food additives
    Antimicrobial agents, antioxidants, artificial colors, artificial flavors, bleaching agents, chelating agents, nutrient additives, stabilizing and thickening agents.
  21. Safe temperature ranges
    45-114 degrees Fahrenheit is the danger zone
  22. Which food additives are also nutrients
    Nurtient additives such as vitamins and minerals. Antioxidants
  23. Which food additives may be harmful
    Sulfites.

    all substances can be toxic in high enough quantities.
  24. Factors that predict health outcome for infants
    nutrient supplies
  25. Healthy infant birth weight
    6.5-9lbs... low birth weight is less than 5.5lbs
  26. The most important determinant of infant health status
    Birth weight
  27. Mother's vitamin/iron status
    iron deficiency anemia is common in pregnancy.  The recommended intake for iron is double that of non-pregnant women.  Women need more vitamins as well
  28. Mother's calorie intake during pregnancy
    need additional 55.000 kcalories.  This can be met by eating an extra 340-450 kcalories a day during the second and third trimester.
  29. Mother's protein intake requirement during pregnancy
    an increase of 25 grams a day is recommended throughout pregnancy, but an intake of 12-15% of kcalories from protein should provide ore than enough.
  30. Maternal weight gain pattern
    25-35 pounds

    • 2-4 lbs in the first trimester
    • about 1 lb per week in the second and third
  31. Mother's intake of non-nutritive substances
    alcohol, caffeine, cigarettes and illicit drugs may cause birth defects and low birth weight.
  32. what organs are functioning in an 8 week fetus
    by the eighth week of development all major external and internal structures have been formed.
  33. How does a lack of food/nutrients affect a mother's milk production
    doesn't affect the nutrients of the milk just how much is produced
  34. Average milk production by lactating mothers
    about 3 cups are produced daily
  35. Breast feeding pros and cons vs bottle feeding
    pros:  provides protection against infection early in life, less likely to cause allergies, breast-fed babies have fewer problems with constipation, stronger suckling required by breast feeding aids in the development of facial muscles which help in speech development, less likely to be overfed 

    bottle-feeding: easier for the infants (if the infant is small or weak), limits the transmission of disease or drugs.
  36. calorie recommendations for baby and lactating mother
    producing 1 cup of milk requires about 330 extra kcalories per day and the milk itself contains about 175 kcalories.
  37. How does TV affect a child's nutrition status
    TV introduces kids to foods they might not otherwise be exposed too and promotes snacking on sweet, fatty, and salty foods.  It also reduces activity.
  38. Rate of hyperactivity in children
    • 5-10 percent
    • may be caused by early consumption of caffeine.
  39. %RDA for nutrients provided by the School Lunch program
    at least 1/3 of the recommended intake for certain nutrients.
  40. Do certain foods cause acne
    non have been found, but stress does
  41. kcalorie requirements for kids
    about 2000 kcalories a day... 70 kcalories per kilogram
  42. How does age affect absorption and needs for nutrients in the elderly
    decline of sense and smell which can contribute to impaired nutritional status by decreasing the appeal of food.  Aging also causes changes in the gastrointestinal tract that may alter the ability to obtain proper nutrition.
  43. Specific nutrition concerns for elderly individuals
    reduced absorption of vitamin B12, folate, calcium and iron
  44. What part of the immune system is involved in an allergic response
    blood stream... "false alarm" body doesn't recognize the nutrients, and thinking that it is an antigen releases antibodies, histamine, and other defensive agents to attack the invaders.
  45. Food intolerance
    an adverse reaction to a food or food additive not involving an immune response.
  46. Food Allergy
    an immune reaction to a foreign substance, such as a component of food.  also called hypersensitivity
  47. Lifespan for men and women
    • Men:
    •    White: 76
    •    Black: 70
    • Women:
    •    White: 81
    •    Black: 77
  48. Which populations (age groups) are at greatest risk for death by starvation world-wide
    Kids?  and women
  49. Which foods are not harmful to the world's rain forest acreage
    • couldn't find it... :-(  
    • NOTHING... WE ARE DESTROYING THE PLANET!!!

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