Nutrition Final.txt

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Nutrition Final.txt
2014-05-05 17:10:58
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  1. Macronutrients
    • Nutrients needed in higher amounts
    • Carbs, fats, and proteins
  2. Micronutrients
    • Needed in smaller amounts
    • vitamins and minerals
  3. Essential nutrients and amounts
    • Carbs and protein=4 kcal/g
    • Fats=9 kcal/g
    • Organic compounds (contain carbon)
    • Proteins also contain nitrogen
  4. Vitamins and minerals
    • Essential for regulation, growth, and maintenance of the body
    • Vitamins are organic
    • Minerals are inorganic
  5. Nutrients
    Chemical compounds in foods to provide fuel for energy, growth, maintenance, body process regulation
  6. Phytochemicals
    non-essential, non-nutritive compounds from plants that contribute to health and may play a role in fighting chronic diseases
  7. Fraction of adults who are obese
  8. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
    Average amount of a nutrient known to meet the needs of 50 percent of individuals of same age and gender
  9. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
    • Based on the EAR, but set higher
    • Average amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of nearly all individuals (97 to 98 percent)
  10. Adequate Intake (AI)
    Next best estimate of amount of nutrient needed to maintain good health after the EAR and RDA
  11. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
    Highest amount of nutrient that is unlikely to cause harm if consumed daily
  12. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)
    • Carbs: 45-65%
    • Fat: 20-35%
    • Proteins: 10-35%
  13. Challenges of farming
    • High costs
    • A demand for low food prices
    • Competition
    • Dependence on the cooperation of mother nature
  14. Agribusiness
    • Blending of agriculture and business
    • Determine how things are developed, processed, distributed, and purchased
  15. Major crops
    • 1) corn
    • 2) soybeans
    • 3) wheat
  16. Largest food import to the US
    Fish and shellfish
  17. Why are hormones given to cows
    to increase weight gain, meat production, and milk production
  18. Recombinant bovin somatotropin (rbST)
    • Synthetically made hormone identical to a cows natural growth hormone (somatotropin)
    • Stimulates milk production
  19. Antibiotics
    Used to treat sick animals, to preventatively treat animals at risk of becoming sick, and to promote growth by keeping the gut intestines health
  20. How can food policy affect food?
    Food policy can help encourage food producers to create healthier products
  21. Viruses
    • Require living host to survive
    • Norovirus, Hepatitis A (causes liver damage)
  22. Bacteria
    • Flourish on living and nonliving surfaces
    • Most common cause of foodborne illness
  23. Parasites
    Microscopic organisms that take nourishment from hosts
  24. Prions
    Extremely rare but deadly infectious agent
  25. Those more at risk for foodborne illness
    • Older adults
    • Younger children
    • Those with compromised immune systems
    • Pregnant women are more susceptible to listeriosis (Listeria infection), which can cause miscarriage
  26. How to prevent foodborne illness
    • Clean your hands and produce
    • Combat cross-contamination
    • Cook foods thoroughly
  27. Paradoxical effect of food insecurity
    Increased risk of overweight and obesity
  28. Impaired growth
    • Effect of chronic malnutrition
    • Stunting in early childhood
    • Vitamin and mineral deficiencies (such as anemia) common
    • Decreased weight for age, impaired learning ability, and long term effects of physical work capacity and fertility
  29. Impaired immunity
    • Effect of chronic malnutrition
    • Increased diarrhea, measles, pneumonia, and malaria
    • Wasting is caused by low energy intake