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Straits of Shimonoseki closed to foreigners
Jan.3, a group of radical samurai seized the palace in Kyōto and declared an Imperial restoration
charter of oath japan
- 1868 assemblies called to discuss policy; every jap devote to furthering interests of the country
- uncivilized customs are to be replaced by new just laws
- knowledge acquired from overseas used for benefit of Jap
consequences of charter oath jap
- abolished feudal system to constitutional monarchy
- modern weapons and conscription
- standardized education and compulsory
- elected parliament (diet)
- state sponsored shipping and banking corps
what is the consequence of perry, the event anti-imperalist imperialism in Asia?
Jap's duty to free asia from grip of western imperialism.
Treaty of Kanghwa
- 1876 Korea's agreement with Japan, because they thought jap was safer partner than the Europeans or Americans; Koreans fears that western nations were going to take Korea over
- Humiliated by unequal treaties and the prospect of losing its independence and integrity to imperialist powers, Japan embarked on a rapid transformation, successfully turning itself from a comparatively medieval society into a modern industrialized state.
- treaty granted Jap rights, open up ports to Jap
Japan attacks Russian fleet at Port Arthur, big victory
First Sino jap war
1894-5, after the Tonghak rebellion, it started
1894 led to Sino Jap war
first sino jap war
1894-95 with China and Japn over korea
what was the consequence of first sino jap war?
- Victory for Japan – gets Taiwan, cash and Liaodong
- indicated Qing's failure to modernize it's army.
- catalyst for a series of revolutions and political changes led by Sun Yat-Sen and Kang Youwei
Their love affairs with ancient ways or old customs remain as strong as they were
centuries ago. In this new and vibrant theatre of civilization when we speak of
education, they only refer back to Confucianism.
they remain arrogant and show no sign of self-examination
- Fukusawa Yukichi, “Goodbye Asia” (1885), in which he describes the spread
- of Western civilization in Japan
when was self strengthening?
- -sought imperial reform, not overthrow of government
-take Chinese learning for the base and Western learning for practical use.
1904 that began the Russo Jap War which led to Russian revolution at 1905
Sun Yat sen
- Chinese revolutionary, first president and founding father of the Republic of China
- -overthrow of Qing dynasty
one hundred day reform by Kang you wei
- the inclusion of Western studies in all Chinese education
- the adoption of a public school system
- the establishment of popularly elected local assemblies
- the eventual creation of a national parliamentary government
- Westernization of the Chinese bureaucracy
- the development of official ministries to promote commerce, industry, and banking the reform of the army.
Their original aim was the destruction of the dynasty and also of the Westerners who had a privileged position in China; known to foreigners as boxers
kang you wei believes
- china should model jap
- worked on the 100 days reform
why did the 100 days reform fail
The edicts issued out of the reform government were implemented in only one out of fifteen provinces; the rest of China resisted the edicts. After only a three months in power, a coup d'etat returned authority to the Empress Dowager and a conservative administration was swept into power.
when was the republic of china founded?1
sun yat sen and "modern" politics
Three Principles of the People: nationalism, democracy, and the people's livelihood of Sun yat sen was the basis for Kuomingdang and under Mao
Indemnity Scholarship Program
paid for by Boxer rebellion indemnity
Empress Dowager Cixi
- 1835 – 15 November 1908
- Manchu Qing dynasty in China for 47 years, from 1861 to her death in 1908
- Cixi ousted a group of regents appointed by the late emperor and assumed regency, which she shared with the Empress Dowager Ci'an. Cixi then consolidated control over the dynasty when, at the death of the Tongzhi Emperor, contrary to the dynastic rules of succession, she installed her nephew as the Guangxu Emperor in 1875. Although she refused to adopt Western models of government, she supported technological and military reforms and the Self-Strengthening Movement. Cixi rejected the Hundred Days' Reforms of 1898 as impractical and detrimental to dynastic power and placed the Guangxu Emperor under house arrest for supporting reformers.
- after revolt, she gave in.
what were the shogunate feelings towards migration?
- illegal, but then lifted in 1858
- maltreatment of Jap abroad worried Jap b/c loss of image
year of gold rush in Cali
1848-1855, which led to Gold rushes elsewhere in the world.
Chinese exclusion act
- 1882 result of gold rush and fear of number of Chinese coming in in these numbers 116,000 of 150,000 coming to CA
- Chinese also used to build RR
year of booming economy in Australia b/c of Gold rush?
New South wales gov't passed the Chinese Immigration Restriction and Regulation Act
when was the chinese exclusion act repealed? why?
- b/c of new wartime employment, 13000 drafted into military, seen as the good asians after pearl harbor
1907 n the Agreement, Japan agreed not to issue passports for Japanese citizens wishing to work in the continental United States, thus effectively eliminating new Japanese immigration to America. In exchange, the United States agreed to accept the presence of Japanese immigrants already residing in America
Labor Contract with Jap and U.S
Japan signed a convention with Hawaii that allowed 29,000 Japanese to enter Hawaii as contract workers. Some remained at the end of their contracts; others moved on to the U.S. after the exclusion act of 1882.
- self-strengthen by including foreign languages, math and science in the curriculum
- -built up his own army and was key to defeating the Taiping
- -what Chinese should learn from foreigners: ships and guns (est. shipyards and arsenal in selective ports and hire foreign advisers to manufacture.
- China would learn from foreigners, equal them and surpass them
- selected Yung Wing to travel to the States to buy the necessary materials.
why does zeng guo fan think foreigners are stronger in?
- utilizing all their human resources, esp labor
- exploiting their soil to the full
- maintaining close bonds between rulers and subjects
- ensuring necessary accord of word and deed.
boldly announced a new imperial dynasty with himself as emperor in 1915–16.
the destruction of China’s navy and army by Japan in the war, the Qing capital of Beijing was exposed to external and internal attack; in consequence, the training of a new army became an urgent task that fell on Yuan.
As the division under his command was the only remnant of China’s army that survived the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, Yuan’s political stature became greater than that of all others, and in 1901 he was given the viceroyalty of the metropolitan province. In that office, and later as a grand councillor, he was to play a decisive part in China’s modernization and defense programs. Almost became new president but he murdered kuomingdang's leader lost credibility
Treaty of Shimonoseki
1895 end the first sino jap war, clear victory for Jap
what was in the treaty of shimonoseki?
china recognize the autonomy of Korea, K ceases to be a tributary system.
- cofounded Chinese communist party
- leader in anti-imperialist Xinhai Revolution and the May Fourth Movement for Science and Democracy
- thought constitutional monarch sounded good not actually good