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  1. function, sources, deficiencies, over intake (and dangers arising from it)
    Vitamin B1 Thiamine
    helpersB complex, magnesium and manganese
    robbers -  antibiotics, tea, coffee, stress, contraception pill, alcohol, alcaline agents, cooking and food refining process
    • function:
    •  a) forms part of an enzymes which breaks down a toxic byproduct of carbohydrates metabolism
    • b)Ensure the brain and nerves have adequate glucose for their needs
    • c) Needed for healthy skin, hair, eyes and liver
    • sources - Pork, Bacon, Nuts, Quorn chunks, Yeast extract, Ready Brek/Special K/Bran Flakes/Fruit’n Fibre, Vegeburger – grilled, Sunflower seeds/peanuts
    • deficiencies - Beri Beri - affects transmission of the impulses along long nerves leading to muscle wasting, paralysis and even death
    • Heavy drinkers can be short of B1
    • loss of appetite lethargy, digestive irregularities, feeling of numbness and weakness in the limbs
    • over intakeVery high doses may cause stomach upset, generally safe
  2. function, sources, deficiencies, over intake (and dangers arising from it)
    Vitamin B2 Riboflavin -
    helpers - works with other b's and Selenium
    robers - alcohol, birth control pill, tea, coffe, alkaline powders, cooking and food refining
    • function - helps in digestion of fats, proteins and carbohydrates
    • needed to maintain and repair skin and mucus membrane, antioxidant 
    • helps to regulate body acidity
    • important for nails, hair and eyes
    • helps the body to change riboflavin and B6 into forms it can use 
    • sources-  mushrooms, broccoli, watercress, cabbage, almonds, whole grains, wheat germ, pumpkin spinach eggs
    • deficiencies - in alcoholics and eldery people as poor diet - fatigue, slow growth, digestive problems, burning or gritty eyes, sensitivity to bright ligh, sore tongue, cataracts, dull, oily hair, eczema, dermatitis, split nails, cracked lips
    • over intake  - excreted in the urine
  3. function, sources, deficiencies, over intake (and dangers arising from it)
    Vitamin B3 niacin
    helpers - other B-complex and chromium
    robbers - antibiotics, tea, coffe, contraception  pill and alcohol
    • functions - involved in releasing the energy from food
    • helps the body to make various sex and stress related hormones in the adrenals and other parts of the body
    • helps improve circulation
    • sources :can be manufactured from amino acid tryptophan in the intestine
    • sources - meat, beef liver and kidneys, fish tuna and swordfish, chicken, turkey, peanuts, sunflower seeds, shitake mushrooms, eggs, dairy, brewer's yeast
    • deficiencies - rare today, pellagra - symptoms 3D's - diarrhea, depression or dementia
    • overdose can cause liver damage, dilation of the blood vessels, kidney damage
  4. function, sources, deficiencies, over intake (and dangers arising from it)
    Vitamin B6 - pyroxide
    needs Zink for use in the body
    helpers - Zink and magnesium
    robbers - alcohol, smoking, contraception pill, high protein intake, processed food

    • functions - essential for protein digestion and utilisation, brain function and hormone production; helps balance sex hormnes - used in PMS and menopouse. Natural anti- depressand and diuretic. Helps controll allergic reactions
    • sources - watercress, cauliflower, cabbage, peppers, bananas, squash, broccoli, asparagus, lentils, onions, seeds and nuts; also fish beef liver and other organ meats potatoes and other starchy vegetables fruit (other than citrus)fortified cereals Walnuts shelled 
    • deficiencies  and overdosse will produce the same signs- infrequent dream recall, water retention, tingling hands, depression or nervousness, irritability, muscle tremor or cramps, muscles weakness and pain related to nerve damage, lack of energy, flaky skin
    • research shows that that deficiency of B6 along with B12 and folic acid - B9
    • overdose - high level can cause nerve damage
  5. function, sources, deficiencies, over intake (and dangers arising from it)
    Vitamin B12 canocobalamin
    helpers - folic acid, best taken as B complex with food
    robbers - alcohol, smoking, lack of stomach acid
    • function - needed for making use of protein, helps the blood to carry oxygen, hence essential for energy, needed for synthesis of DNA, essential for nerves, deals with tobacco smoke and other toxins
    • sources - Oysters, sardines, tuna, lamb, eggs, shrimp, cottage cheese, milk, turkey and chicken, cheese
    • deficiencies - leeds to form of anemia called pernicious and can also lead to nerve damage. If low intake and lack f B^ and B9= high homocysteine levels;
    • signs - poor hair condition, eczema and dermatitis, mouth over sensitivity to heat and cold, irritability, anxiety or tension, lack of energy, constipation, tender or sore muscles, pale skin.
    • over intake - no toxic, vit stored in the liver
  6. function, sources, deficiencies, over intake (and dangers arising from it)
    folic acid B9
    helpers - B complex especially B12
    robbes - high temp, light, food processing and contraception pill
    • Function - critical during pregnancyfor development of brain and nerves, essential for brain functioning all life, needed for utilising protein and red blood cells production
    • sources - offal, yest extract, wheat germ, green leafy and root veg, sesame seed, broccoli, nuts and dried pulses, avocado
    • deficiency - Megaloblastic anemia, controls homocysteine - CHD., Folate deficient women who become pregnant are at greater risk of giving birth to low birth weight, premature, and/or infants with neural tube defects, In infants and children, folate deficiency can slow overall growth rate. Cracked lips, prematurely graying hair, anxiety or tension, poor memory, lack of energy, poor appetite, stomach pains, depression.
  7. function, sources, deficiencies, over intake (and dangers arising from it)
    Vitamin K -phylloquinone
    helpers - healthy intestinal bacteria
    robbers - antibiotics, in infants lack of breast feeding.
    • functions - control blood clothing
    • sources - mostly produced in the guts by bacteria, widespread in foods, best source is green leafy veg
    • defficiency - haemorrhage (easy bleeding)
    • over intake - not a concern
  8. function, sources, deficiencies, over intake (and dangers arising from it)
    Vitamin E - d-alpha tocopherol
    helpers - wit C and selenium
    robbers - high-tep cooking, especially frying, air - pollution, contraception pill, excess intake of refined or processed fats and oils.
    • function - Antioxidant, protecting cells form damage including against the cancer. Helps body use oxygen, preventing blood cloths, thrombosis, arteriosclerosis. Improves wound healing and fertility. Good for the skin
    • sources - unrefined corn oils, sunflower seeds, peanuts, sesame seeeds, other seed foods, tuna, sardines, salmon, sweet potatoes, nuts, green leafy veg
    • deficiencies - lack of sex drive, exhaustion after light exercise, easy bruising, slow wound healing, varicose veins, loss of muscle tone, infertility
    • excess - just when on anticoagulants - too thin blood
  9. function, sources, deficiencies, over intake (and dangers arising from it)
    Vitamin D - 
    helpers - sufficient exposure to sunlight
    robbers - lack of sunlight, fried foods
    • Functions - helps promote healthy and strong bones by retaining calcium
    • sources - herrings, macarel, salmon, oysters, cottage cheese, eggs
    • deficiencies - joint pain or stiffness, backache, tooth decay, muscle cramps, hair loss; Rickets in childrenWeakness and pain in adults
    • excess - rare - Can produce kidney damage by causing excess calcium to be deposited in the organs
  10. function, sources, deficiencies, over intake (and dangers arising from it)
    Vitamin C - ascorbic acid
    helpers - bioflavonoids in fruit and veg increase its effect, works with vit B to produce energy, with vit E as an antioxidant
    robbers - smoking, alcohol, pollutions, stress, fried food, food processing
    • functions: immune system strengthening - fight infections, makes collagen, keeping bones, skin and joints firm and strong. Antioxidant - detoxifying pollutants ans protecting against heart diseases and cancer. Helps make anti-stress hormones, and turns food into energy.
    • sources - peppers, watercress, cabbage, broccolicauliflower, strawberries, lemon, kiwi,...
    • deficiencies - frequent colds, lack of energy, frequent onfections, bleeding or tender gums, easy bruising, nosebleeds, slow wound healing, red pimples on skin - scurvy
    • excess - may cause bowel looseness in excess.
  11. function, sources, deficiencies, over intake (and dangers arising from it)
    Vitamin A- Retinol & retinol equivalents
    helpers - works with Zink, vit C and E help to protect it
    robbers - heat, light, alcohol, coffee, smoking
    • function - essential for healthy skin, protecting against infections. Anti-oxidant and immune buster. Protects against many forms of cancer. Essential for night vision
    • sources - beef liver, veal liver, carrots, watercress, cabbage, sweet potatoes, melon mangoes, tomatoes, broccoli, tangerine
    • deficiencies - mouth ulcers, poor night vision, acne, frequent colds and infections, dry flaky skin, dandruff, thrush or cystitis, diarrhoea.
    • over- dose - rare, may cause orange skin
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