Chapter 23: The Digestive System

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tad.ramage
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273320
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Chapter 23: The Digestive System
Updated:
2014-05-05 18:42:34
Tags:
digestive
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Anatomy and Physiology
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The Digestive System
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  1. Digestive System
    • is divided into specialized compartments for food processing
    • Nerves and hormones control digestive activities
    • Functions: bring food into the body - digest it into nutrients that are absorbed by the body - eliminate wastes out of the body
  2. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
    • Extends from the mouth to the anus, along with accessory glands
    • Major components: mouth - esophagus - stomach - small intestine - large intestine
    • Accessory organs - salivary organs - salivary glands - pancreas - liver - gallbladder
  3. Peristalsis
    • "around constriction"
    • Involves alternating waves of contraction and relaxation of muscles in the organ walls
  4. Digestive Processes
    • Ingestion - taking in food
    • Propulsion - swallowing
    • Mechanical Breakdown - chewing, churning, segmentation
    • Digestion - breaking down
    • Absorption - taking in nutrients
    • Defacation - poop
  5. Peritoneum
    • serous membrane of abdominal cavity
    • Visceral Peritoneum - Parietal Peritoneum
  6. Peritonitis
    • Inflammation of peritonitis
    • Can be caused by piercing abdominal wound, perforating ulcer, ruptured appendix
    • Peritoneal coverings stick together, localizing infection
    • Dangerous and lethal if widespread
    • Treated with debris removal and antibiotics
  7. Mucosa
    • Lines entire digestive tract
    • Lines lumen
  8. Lumen
    [where food travels]
  9. Serosa
    • Outermost layer
    • Visceral peritoneum - areolar connective tissue
  10. Mouth
    • Oral Cavity (Buccal Cavity)
    • Oral orifice - opening
  11. Lips and Cheeks
    • Vestibule - recess internal to lips (labia) and cheeks, external to teeth and gums
    • Oral Cavity - lies within teeth and gums
    • Labial Frenulum - median attachment of each lip to gum
  12. Tongue
    • Skeletal muscle (voluntary)
    • Functions: chewing, swallowing, speech, taste
    • Lingual frenulum: attachment to floor of mouth
  13. Salivary Gland
    Produce saliva
  14. Saliva
    • Cleanses mouth
    • Dissolves food chemicals for taste
    • Moisten food; compacts into bolus
    • Begins breakdown of starch with enzymes (amylase)
    • Mainly water (slightly acidic)
  15. Esophagus
    • passage that connects the pharynx to the stomach
    • No digestive processes occur here
    • Food is move along via peristalsis
  16. Sphincters
    circular muscles that control the entrance and exit of materials to from the stomach
  17. Acid Reflux
    heartburn occurs when partially digested food comes back up into the esophagus and produces a burning sensation
  18. Stomach
    • Breaks up food through muscular contractions
    • Three layers of smooth muscle
    • Food that leaves stomach is only partially digested
    • Functions: stores food - add digest enzymes (pepcin) and acids that begin chemical digestion of protein - turns food into a soupy mixture call chyme
  19. Chyme
    soupy mixture that leaves the stomach
  20. Stomach - Secretions
    Gastric glands secrete
    • Pepsin - that begins the digestion of proteins
    • Hydrochloric acid (HCl) - strong acid
  21. Small Intestine
    • Duodenum - Jejunum - Ileum
    • 2.5 cm in diameter - 6 meters
    • Secretions from the pancreas, liver and gall bladder enter the small intestine
    • Smooth muscles surround the intestine to push the food through the digestive tract
    • Primary site of digestion (chemical)
  22. Bile
    • From liver
    • Breaks down lipids (fats)
  23. Large Intestine
    • Most nutrients have already been removed
    • Absorbs: water, salt, & vitamins
    • Ascending Colon - Tranverse Colon - Descending Colon - Sigmoid Colon - Rectum
  24. Colon
    Contains beneficial bacteria which act on digestible material (causing gas), produce B complex vitamins, and most of the vitamin K needs for clotting of blood
  25. Rectum
    holds feces temporarily and opens into the anus
  26. Anus
    has sphincter muscles controls defecation (reflex action)

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