pharm epi final

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pharm epi final
2014-05-05 21:31:11
pharm epi final
pharm epi final
pharm epi final
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  1. attack rate
    • # of new cases in population at risk
    • # of persons at risk

    more along the lines of an epidemic (H1N1)
  2. prevalence
    • # of existing cases of a disease
    • total population

    • snapshot
    • used in cross sectional studies
  3. incidence rate
    • # of new cases
    • total population

    • motion picture
    • more long term chronic diseases (cancer)
  4. mortality rate
    • # of people who have died
    • total population

    in a period of time
  5. case fatality rate
    • # of dead from disease
    • total # with disease
    • proportion of people with a condition who die from it in a specified time period.
  6. attributable risk
    • risk exposed - risk unexposed
    • risk exposed

    showing the disease is from the exposure not due to chance
  7. relative risk
    • risk exposed
    • risk unexposed

    • likelihood of developing the outcome in the exposed relative to non-exposed
    • used in cohort study
  8. odds ratio
    odds of exposure in the diseased vs. non diseased
  9. odds ratio in unmatched
    • AD
    • BC

    • # cases with exposures  X #controls w/o exp
    • # of cases w/o expos        #controls w expos
  10. odds ratio in matched pairs
    • B
    • C

    • # of pairs where cases have been exposed + control has not been exposed
    • # of pairs in which only the control has been exposed + case has not been exposed
  11. which study design uses odds ratio
    case control studies
  12. which study uses relative relative risk
    cohort study
  13. which study uses prevalence
    cross sectional studies
  14. confidence intervals
    • defines an interval w/I which the true (population) value is likely to fall. indicates the precision of the OR or RR.
    • if CI crosses 1 = not significant
    • if comparing 2 CI, any overlap = not significant
  15. cross sectional study
    a prevalence survey of health and illness in the population at one point in time.
  16. case control study
    • a retrospective analysis comparing subjects with the condition (case) to those without it
    • (controls) with respect to possible risk of causative factors
  17. cohort study
    • an incidence study that follows a population free of health problems over time, examining
    • subsequent development of problems and factors associated with them
  18. clinical trials
    an experimental approach that tests the value of a new treatment or intervention compared with a standard treatment or a placebo