Geog 111: Part 2
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Geog 111: Part 2
What is a forest?
-70% canopy closure, dominated by trees
-Categorization system used before Linnaeus system, based on descriptions
-breaks into groups like family, genus & specie
Rule for writing scientific names
-Genus is always capitalized
-species is never capitalized
-based on reproductive characteristics, not descriptive characteristics
-when writing scientific name, always underlined or italicized
-family ends in aceae
Present on the exterior of trees
Leaves on some plants, set together in a bundle- by looking at how many needles are in a bundle-you can determine the type of pine
Leave Terms: Simple
Leave Terms: Compound
-has many small leaves that make up a whole leaf
Leave Terms: Opposite
-Occurring in pairs at the same level on opposite sides of the node; 2 per node
Leave Terms: Alternate
Leaves are in an alternating pattern
Types of Shape: Pinnate
Types of Shape:Palmate
-sap that comes out of tree when tree is damaged
-Rubber is made from latex
--can be different color based on species like yellow, red, black, white, etc.
-appendage at the base of leaf that was where leaf emerged
-covered up leaf before it popps out
-looks like holes
-Ex. Citrus leaves and Eucalyptus trees
--some plants have glands & produce waterfalls of nectar to attract protectors (like army ants) to prevent other animals to mess with them... maybe also pollinators?
-common in the pea family
Evergreen vs. Deciduous
: keep their same color and leaves throughout the entire year
: leaves fall off and die in the winter
Why is important to quantify tropical biomass?
-Humans release a lot of c & co2 in atmosphere, understanding how much is stored in forests (carbon sequestration) is used in carbon credits, climate models, etc.
-understand forest productivity/health
-timber value, successional stages, fire fuels, biodiversity & habitat, etc.
How do you quantify tropical biomass?
-Create hectare plots (100m x100m),
-measure every tree greater than 10,000m2, core tree for wood density.
-Higher density = higher storage of carbon,
-lower density = lower storage of carbon
What is the most endangered forest in Hawaii?
-Tropical Dry Forest
: occurs in tropical forests on leewards side of mountain ranges (in rain shadow),
-will experience periods of low rainfall (dry season) every year
How do you restore Endangered Species in Hawaii?
-find known locations to predict where it occurs now/future,
-create a model to find out where it is best to plant, go plant it!