Geog 111: Part 2

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  1. What is a forest?
    -70% canopy closure, dominated by trees
  2. Polynomial System
    -Categorization system used before Linnaeus system, based on descriptions
  3. Carl Linnaeus
    • -binomial
    • -breaks into groups like family, genus & specie
  4. Rule for writing scientific names
    • -Genus is always capitalized
    • -species is never capitalized
    • -based on reproductive characteristics, not descriptive characteristics
    • -when writing scientific name, always underlined or italicized
    • -family ends in aceae
  5. Scales
    Present on the exterior of trees
  6. Needles
    Leaves on some plants, set together in a bundle- by looking at how many needles are in a bundle-you can determine the type of pine
  7. Leave Terms: Simple
    -one blade
  8. Leave Terms: Compound
    -has many small leaves that make up a whole leaf
  9. Leave Terms: Opposite
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    • -Occurring in pairs at the same level on opposite sides of the node; 2 per node
  10. Leave Terms: Alternate
    Leaves are in an alternating pattern
  11. Types of Shape: Pinnate
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  12. Types of Shape:Palmate
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  13. Latex
    • -sap that comes out of tree when tree is damaged
    • -Rubber is made from latex
    • --can be different color based on species like yellow, red, black, white, etc.
  14. Stipules
    • -appendage at the base of leaf that was where leaf emerged
    • -covered up leaf before it popps out
  15. Punctation
    • -Flavor Crystals
    • -looks like holes
    • -Ex.┬áCitrus leaves and Eucalyptus trees
  16. Glands
    • --some plants have glands & produce waterfalls of nectar to attract protectors (like army ants) to prevent other animals to mess with them... maybe also pollinators?
    • -common in the pea family
  17. Serrate
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  18. Entire
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  19. Evergreen vs. Deciduous
    • -evergreen: keep their same color and leaves throughout the entire year
    • -deciduous: leaves fall off and die in the winter
  20. Why is important to quantify tropical biomass?
    • -Humans release a lot of c & co2 in atmosphere, understanding how much is stored in forests (carbon sequestration) is used in carbon credits, climate models, etc.
    • -understand forest productivity/health
    • -intrinsic value
    • -timber value, successional stages, fire fuels, biodiversity & habitat, etc.
  21. How do you quantify tropical biomass?
    • -Create hectare plots (100m x100m),
    • -measure every tree greater than 10,000m2, core tree for wood density.
    • -Higher density = higher storage of carbon,
    • -lower density = lower storage of carbon
  22. What is the most endangered forest in Hawaii?
    • -Tropical Dry Forest: occurs in tropical forests on leewards side of mountain ranges (in rain shadow),
    • -will experience periods of low rainfall (dry season) every year
  23. How do you restore Endangered Species in Hawaii?
    • -find known locations to predict where it occurs now/future,
    • -create a model to find out where it is best to plant, go plant it!
Card Set:
Geog 111: Part 2
2014-06-05 06:31:38

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