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What is a forest?
-70% canopy closure, dominated by trees
-Categorization system used before Linnaeus system, based on descriptions
- -breaks into groups like family, genus & specie
Rule for writing scientific names
- -Genus is always capitalized
- -species is never capitalized
- -based on reproductive characteristics, not descriptive characteristics
- -when writing scientific name, always underlined or italicized
- -family ends in aceae
Present on the exterior of trees
Leaves on some plants, set together in a bundle- by looking at how many needles are in a bundle-you can determine the type of pine
Leave Terms: Simple
Leave Terms: Compound
-has many small leaves that make up a whole leaf
Leave Terms: Opposite
- -Occurring in pairs at the same level on opposite sides of the node; 2 per node
Leave Terms: Alternate
Leaves are in an alternating pattern
- -sap that comes out of tree when tree is damaged
- -Rubber is made from latex
- --can be different color based on species like yellow, red, black, white, etc.
- -appendage at the base of leaf that was where leaf emerged
- -covered up leaf before it popps out
- -Flavor Crystals
- -looks like holes
- -Ex. Citrus leaves and Eucalyptus trees
- --some plants have glands & produce waterfalls of nectar to attract protectors (like army ants) to prevent other animals to mess with them... maybe also pollinators?
- -common in the pea family
Evergreen vs. Deciduous
- -evergreen: keep their same color and leaves throughout the entire year
- -deciduous: leaves fall off and die in the winter
Why is important to quantify tropical biomass?
- -Humans release a lot of c & co2 in atmosphere, understanding how much is stored in forests (carbon sequestration) is used in carbon credits, climate models, etc.
- -understand forest productivity/health
- -intrinsic value
- -timber value, successional stages, fire fuels, biodiversity & habitat, etc.
How do you quantify tropical biomass?
- -Create hectare plots (100m x100m),
- -measure every tree greater than 10,000m2, core tree for wood density.
- -Higher density = higher storage of carbon,
- -lower density = lower storage of carbon
What is the most endangered forest in Hawaii?
- -Tropical Dry Forest: occurs in tropical forests on leewards side of mountain ranges (in rain shadow),
- -will experience periods of low rainfall (dry season) every year
How do you restore Endangered Species in Hawaii?
- -find known locations to predict where it occurs now/future,
- -create a model to find out where it is best to plant, go plant it!